Research Grant History

1951-52

Went, Dr. Frits. California Institute of Technology. "Cymbidium Research." $200

1951-53

Rotor. Dr. Gavino. Cornell University. "Orchid research." $1,000

1957-58

Botany Department. University of Miami. "Stimulation of branching orchid rhizomes." $500
Casamajor, Robert. Earhart Pl. Research Lab. "Relationship between protocorm and adult potential in cymbidiums." $200
Jensen, Dr. D. University of California Berkeley. "Indentification of orchid viruses and their effects." $500
Kamemoto, Dr. Haruyuki. University of Hawaii. "Genetics and cytogenetics of orchids." $2,500
Mehlquist, Dr. Gustave. University of Connecticut. "Genetic research." $2,227
Sheehan, Dr. Thomas. University of Florida. "Effect of growth media on orchid culture." $1,000

1958-59

Kamemoto, Dr. Haruyuki. University of Hawaii. "Cytogenetics of orchids." $1,500
Melquist, Dr. Gustave. University of Connecticut. "Study of meiosis in diploid and polyploid orchids." $2,625

1959-60

Alexander, Dr. Taylor. University of Miami. "Methods to break dormancy in back bulbs." $500
Casamajor, Robert. Earhart Pl. Research Lab. "Relationship between protocorm bulb size and adult potential in cymbidium." $200
Davidson, Dr. O. Wesley. Rutgers University. "Effects of pot type choice on orchid growth and culture." $700
Kamemoto, Dr. Haruyuki. University of Hawaii. "Cytogenetics of orchids." $2,000
Nelson, F. Iowa State University. "Orchid seed germination." $700
Sagawa, Dr. Yoneo. University of Florida. "Fertilization studies." $2,400
Sheehan, Dr. Thomas. University of Florida. "Effect of growth media on orchid culture." $1,000
Withner, Dr. Carl. Brooklyn College. "Energy used by flower parts." n/a

1962-63

Davidson, Dr. O. Wesley. Rutgers University. "Effect of leaf temperature on orchids." $1,200
Kamemoto, Dr. Haruyuki. University of Hawaii. "Genetic studies." $500
Sagawa, Dr. Yoneo. University of Florida. "Green pod culture in phals." $2,000
Sagawa, Dr. Yoneo. University of Florida. "Ovule development in phals." $1,000

1963-64

Arditti, Dr. Joseph. University of Southern California. "Growth factors in orchids." $500
Garay, Dr. Leslie. Harvard University. "Orchid evolution." $1,000
Kamemoto, Dr. Haruyuki. University of Hawaii. "Genetics of orchids." $500
Sagawa, Dr. Yoneo. University of Florida. "Green pod culture, shoot apex culture." $200
Wimber, Dr. Donald. University of Oregon. "Culture of shoot meristem tissue." $3,500

1965-66

Thornberry, H. University of Illinois. "Necrotic petal spot." $2,000
Wheeler, Dr Louis. University of Southern California. "Trace elements in orchids." $1,516

1965-68

Sagawa, Dr. Yoneo. University of Florida. "Shoot apex cultures." $6,750

1966-67

Bivens, J. University of California. "Growth hormones in orchid production." $1,500
Bivens, J. University of California. "Pre-emergence weed control." $500
Sweet, Dr. Herman. Harvard University. "Taxonomy of phals." $1,500

1966-68

Abernathie, J. University of Kentucky. "Virus disease symptoms." $2,400

1967

Williams, Dr. Norris. University of Miami. "Genus Brassia in Ecuador." $600

1967-68

Arditti, Dr. Joseph. University of California. "The Role of mycorrhiza in the nutrient uptake of orchids." $1,630
Hayes, A. Loyola University. "Role of fungus-produced plant growth hormones in orchid seed germination." $250

1967-69

Sheehan, Dr. Thomas. University of Florida. "Mericloning monopodial orchids." $6,000

1968-69

Harper, Dr. James. Ohio State University. "Characterization of Pigments of Orchid Flowers." $1,500
Morel, Dr. Georges. I.C.N.R. "The Elimination of Viruses from Orchid Plants." $3,000
Sagawa, Dr. Yoneo. University of Hawaii. "Pigments in orchids." $1,000
Sanford, Dr William W. University of Ife, Nigeria. "A Study of Orchids of West Africa." $1,500
Sweet, Dr. Herman. Harvard University. "Revision of Phalaenopsis." $1,200

1969-70

Lawson, Dr. Roger. United States Department of Agriculture. "Factors affecting expression of flower necrosis in cattleya orchids." $2,500

1969-71

Arditti, Dr. Joseph. University of California. "The Propagation of orchids from Leaf Tissues." $2,500

1970-71

Lawson, Dr. Roger. United States Department of Agriculture. "Virus Research." $4,500
Sagawa, Dr. Yoneo. University of Hawaii. "Genetic Studies of Doritis pulcherrima." $3,600
Williams, Dr. Norris H. University of Miami. "Scanning electron microscopic studies of orchid pollen." $969

1970-72

Beechey, Christine N. University of Malaya. "A histochemical study of the seeds of Spathoglottis." $3,000
Frei, Sister Karen John. Barry College. "The Ecological Significance of bark substrates to the germination of orchid seed and the growth of seedlings." $1,000

1971-72

Arditti, Dr. Joseph. University of Southern California. "Physiology and biochemistry of orchids." $6,000
Fiske, M. Union College. "Orchid exploration in Ecuador." $500
University of Costa Rica. "Lankester Gardens." $12,500

1971-73

Holman, Dr. Ralph. University of Minnesota. "Characterization of the fragrances of orchids." $3,000

1972-73

Frei, J. Barry College. "Influence of bark type on orchid growth." $1,750
Harper, Dr. James. Ohio State University. "Orchid pigments." $250
Millar, Andrea. University of Papua New Guinea. "Orchids of Papua New Guinea." $1,000
Thien, L. Tulane University. "Purchase of photographic equipment." $985

1973-75

Strauss, Michael. University of California. "Floral senescence in orchids." $1,555

1973-76

Holman, Dr. Ralph. University of Minnesota. "Composition of orchid fragrances." $5,000

1974

Peterson, Richard. American Orchid Society. "Indoor orchid culture." $500

1974-75

Lawson, Dr. Roger. United States Department of Agriculture. "Virus research." $1,500
Lawson, Dr. Roger. United States Department of Agriculture. "Virus research." $1,500
Millar, Andrea. University of Papua New Guinea. "Extension of grant to collect orchids." $1,250
Sagawa, Dr. Yonea. University of Hawaii. "Short course development." $500

1975-76

Arditti, Dr. Joseph. University of Southern California. "Development of culture medium." $3,000
Frei, J. Barry College. "The effect of elevated levels of carbon dioxide." $3,900

1975-77

Raghavan, V. Ohio State University. "Induction of haploid plants in orchids by another culture." $3,400

1976-77

Adams, R. Florida Atlantic University. "Culture media of orchids." $2,620
Holman, Dr. Ralph. University of Minnesota. "Orchid fragrances." $500
Sheviak, Dr. Charles. Harvard University. "Biosystematic study of the Sprianthes cernua complex." $500
Williams, Dr. Norris. Florida State University. "Training orchidologists for the future." $3,700
University of Costa Rica. "Replace lath housed, Lankester Gardens." $1,000

1976-78

Williams, Dr. Norris. Florida State University. "Structure and evolution of orchid pollen." $2,000
Selby Botanical Garden. "To establish O.I.C." $13,000

1977

A.J Eames Mem. Fd. Cornell University. "A.J. Eames Botan, President. $500

1977-78

Atwood, Dr. John. Florida State University. "A Survey of plicate leaf anatomy." $984
Stoutamire, Dr. Warren. University of Akron. "Pollination studies of Australian territory orchids." $2,500

1977-86

Stewart, Dr. John. University of Colorado. "Chemical taxonomy of Orchidaceae." $3,300

1978-79

Holman, Dr. Ralph. University of Minnesota. "Orchid fragrances." $500
McDaniel, D. West Virginia University. "Ultraviolet photography of orchids." $485
Murashige, Dr. Toshio. University of California. "Rapid vegetative propagation of paphiopedilums." $6,000

1979

Walter, K. Museo National, CR. "Listing of orchids in Costa Rica." $500

1979-80

Arditti, Dr. Joseph. University of California. "Germinating orchid seeds." $4,000
Garay, Dr. Leslie. Harvard University. "Publication of work on genus Stelis." $800
Stermitz, F. Colorado State University. "Phragmipedium alkaloids." $2,600
Wright, L. University of California, Davis. "Orchid propagation from mesophyll cells." $5,954

1979-81

Bubeck, S. Princeton University. "Paph. Meristem culture." $3,050

1980

Garay, Dr. Leslie. Harvard University. "Publication of monograph on Spiranthinae." $1,500

1980-81

Brackley, F. New Hampshire National Heritage Program. "Orchids of New Hampshire." $936
Krell, R. Florida State University. "Distribution range of forms of Calypso bulbosa." $2,573
Todsen, Dr. Thomas. New Mexico State University. "Distribution and habitat of orchids within the Chirripo National Park." $7,120
Zeiger, E. Stanford University. "Physiology and in vitro culture of guard cells and mesophyll cells." $15,000

1980-82

Sheviak, Dr. Charles. Harvard University. "Culture of North American orchids." $14,421
Vernon, Russell. Ball State University. "Expansion of the Wheeler orchid collection and species bank." $1,000
Wilson, Dr. Kenneth. Purdue University. "Morphological structure and development of pollinaria." $5,000

1980-83

Kuhn, Lee. Selby Botanical Garden. "Alternate tissue sourcing for the micropropagation of orchids." $6,975
Kuhn, Lee. Selby Botanical Garden. "Alternate tissue sourcing." $12,520

1981-82

Dodson, Dr. Callaway. Selby Botanical Garden. "Computerization of O.I.C." $7,189
Hogan, K. University of Illinois. "Study of ecology of Apectrum hymenale." $325
Kabru, M. University of Papua New Guinea. "Training as an orchidist." $2,000
Stimart, Dr. Dennis. University of Maryland. "Preservation of cypripediums through in vitro germination." $4,950
Zettler, Dr. F. William. University of Florida. "Grower use of virus indexing." $6,000

1981-83

Moore, R. Baylor University. "Attempt to cross dendrobiums with Brassavola." $1,200
Stewart, Dr. Dennis. University of Maryland. "Preservation of Cypripedium through in vitro germination." $4,950
Wimber, Dr. Donald. University of Oregon. "Cytological Study of Phragmipedium Species and Hybrids." $2,695

1982-84

Lim, K. Royal Botanical Garden. "Chromosomal studies of Dendrobium." $2,000
Sagawa, Dr. Yoneo. University of Hawaii. "Storage of germ plasm through culture." $6,000

1982-86

Yeung, Dr. E. University of Calgary. "Reproductive biology of Epidendrum ibaguense in vivo and in vitro." $16,200

1982-88

Ballard, Dr. William. Dartmouth University. "Propagating native cypripediums." $2,500

1983-84

Ackerman, Dr. James. University of Puerto Rico. "Limitation to natural fruit production in tropical orchids." $3,000
Asher, Dr. James. Michigan State University. "Genetic and biochemistry." $3,500

1983-85

Wimber, Dr. Donald. University of Oregon. "Introduction of polyploidy in Paphiopedilum." $2,590

1983-86

Williams, Dr. Norris. University of Florida. "Fragrance analysis of Stanhopea, etc." $5,700

1984-85

Meeuse, B. University of Hawaii. "Pollinators of Epipactis." $6,089
Walter, K. New York Botanical Garden. "Development of a Costa Rican data bank." $660
Zettler, Dr. F. William. University of Florida. "Implementation of orchid virus controls." $3,000

1984-86

Case, Martha. Michigan State University. "Electrophoresis studies of Cypripedium calceolus." $884

1985

Chase, Dr. Mark. University of Michigan. "Pollination studies of Leochilus in Costa Rica." $450

1985-86

Atwood, Dr. John. Selby Botanical Garden. "Reichenbach microfiche for O.I.C." $1,150

1985-87

Lawson, Dr. Roger. United States Department of Agriculture. "Identification and trans. of new virus in Masdevallia species." $10,000

1986-87

Chase, Dr. Mark. University of Michigan. "Taxonomy of Leochilus." $200

1986-88

Stern, Dr. William. University of Florida. "Floral fragrance analysis of Catasetum and Stanhopea alliance." $3,000
Zimmerman, J. University of Utah. "Nutritional ecology of Catasetum viridiflavum." $1,833

1987-89

Coleman, A. Brown University. "Chloroplast DNA inheritance and phylogeny in the Orchidaceae." $7,208

1987-90

Christenson, Dr. Eric. Selby Botanical Gardens. "Chemosystematics of the Aerides-Vanda group as it relates to phylogenetics." $2,654

1988

McCock, Dr. Lucille. Cornell University. "Systematics and diversity of Phragmipedium." $9,373

1988-89

Atwood, Dr. John. Selby Botanical Garden. "Illustrations on infrequently depicted Central American orchids." $4,400
Dressler, Dr. Robert. University of Florida. "Illustrations for phylogeny and systematics of the orchid family." $2,000

1989-90

Ballard, Dr. William. Dartmouth College. "Rearing Cypripediumorchids." $4,600
Cowden, N. and Ferdinandsen. Miami University. "Isoenzyme and habitat characterizations of Platanthera ciliarisP. Blephariglottis and their hybrid P. x Bicolor." $2,282

1989-91

Beattie, Dr. Andrew. Macquarie University. "The population genetics of contrasting orchid population systems." $4,500
Griesbach, Dr. Robert. United States Department of Agriculture. "Vaughn-Jordan orchid virus project." $34,000

1990

Adelberg, Jeffrey. Clemson University. "Membrane-based orchid culture." $7,000
Calvo, R. University of Miami. "Role of pollinator in determining fruit production of Oncidium variegatum." $2,220
Currah, Dr. Randolph S. University of Alberta, Canada. "Taxonomic and Ecological aspects of Orchid Mycotrophy in a Tropical Cloud Forest." $22,000
Dauncey, Elizabeth. University of Reading. "Collection of DendrobiumSw. in Papua New Guinea." $1,000
Steinhart, Dr. William. Bowdoin College. "Molecular genetics of Cymbidium mosaic virus reproduction." $5,575

1990-92

O’Neill, Sharman. University of California at Davis. "Molecular genetic regulation of orchid flower senescence." $36,000

1990-93

Albert, Victor A. University of North Carolina. "Phylogeny of the Cypripedioideae." $27,000

1991

Lewis, Beverley A. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. "Field study of Solomon Isalnd orchids." $3,800
Pritchard, Dr. Hugh. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. "A comparative study of seed longevity in orchids: a physiological and biographical approach." $22,040

1992

Antlfinger, Dr. Ann. University of Nebraska. "Contribution of the inflorescence photosynthesis to the carbon economy of the terrestrial orchid, Spiranthes cernua." $9,263
Mudge, Dr. Ken. Cornell University. "Symbiotic germination and development of Cypripedium orchids." $10,450
Whitten, Dr. Mark. University of Florida. "Chloroplast DNA Systematics of Stanhopeinae." $3,900

1993

Camper, Dwight. Clemson University. "Growth and Reproduction of Mycorrhizal Rhizoctonias and their interaction with Orchid Embryos." $7,000
Christenson, Dr. Eric. New York Botanical Garden. "An inventory of the Kraenzlin orchid herbarium." $1,390
Christenson, Dr. Eric. New York Botanical Garden. "Curation of Guianan Orchidaceae at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew." $2,000
Luer, Dr. Carlyle. Selby Botanical Garden. "Inking of botanical drawings." $2,500
Taylor, Donald. University of California, Berkeley. "A study of the ecology and fungal phylogenetics of orchid mycorrhizae using molecular techniques." $11,950

1994

Ackerman, Dr. James D. University of Puerto Rico. "Flora of the Greater Antillies." $10,000
Averyanov, Dr. Leonid V. Komarov Botanical Institute, Russia. "Exploration of Endangered Vietnamese Paphiopedilums." $6,400
Stich, Thomas. Frostburg State University. "Symbiotic germination of Platanthera grandiflora, a terrestrial orchid of threatened status in the state of Maryland." $700

1995-96

Wang, Dr. Yin-Tung. Texas Agricultural Experimental Station. "Regulation of flowering in Phalaenopsis." $7,320

1995-97

Bowen, Kira. Auburn University. "The development of biological control strategies for control of root rot diseases on Orchids." $18,000
Givnish, Thomas J. University of Wisconsin, Madison. "Molecular Evolution and Adaptive Radiation in Platanthera (Orchidaceae)." $10,800

1996-97

Simpson, Dr. Beryl. University of Texas, Austin. "Evolution of Dendrochilum subsection Eurybrachium (Orchidaceae) on Mt. Kinabalu Examined in a Phylogenetic Context." $4,600

1996-98

Higgins, Wesley E. University of Florida. "Phylogenetic Inter-generic Relationships in Encyclia (Orchidaceae) based upon its sequences of R DNA." $4,000
Jansen, Dr. Robert K. University of Texas, Austin. "Systematics of the genus Calopogon and the tribe Arethusae." $4,550
Pridgeon, Dr. Alec M. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. "Molecular Phylogenetics of Pleurothallidinae (Orchidaceae)." $3,000
Williams, Dr. Norris H. University of Florida. "Molecular approaches to the Phylogeny of the Oncidiinae (Orchidaceae)." $6,150

1997-99

Maldonado, Mayra. University del Valle de Guatemala. "Natural hybridization and genetic diversity among Lycaste cochleataL. cruenta and L. suaveolens (Orchidaceae) in Guatemala." $8,600
Van den Berg, Cassio. Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew. "Molecular Phylogenetic Relationship of Laeliinae (Orchidaceae) with special emphasis on the Cattleya Alliance." $7,300

1998-99

Averyanov, Dr. Leonid V. Komarov Botanical Institute, Russia. "Exploration of endangered calcium-dependent orchid flora in inaccessible rock limestone areas of Northern Vietnam." $7,100

1999-2000

Dillion, Dr. Michael. The Field Museum. "Microscope for Museo de Historia Natural in Trujillo, Peru, to be used by the illustrator working on the ‘Orchids of Peru’. $6,400
Krauss, Dr. Siegfried. Kings Park and Botanic Garden. "DNA fingerprinting in Orchids." $11,500

1999-2001

Peakall, Dr. Rod. Australian National University. "Development of new genetic markers for the study of gene flow and paternity analysis in the sexually deceptive orchid genus Chiloglottis." $36,000

2000-01

Ballard Jr., Dr. Harvey E. Ohio University. "Genetic diversity and microsite characterization of the rare monkey face orchid Plantanthera integrilabia in Southeastern United States." $2,000
Schiestl, Dr. Florian. Australian National University. "Diversity of chemical communication systems in Australian sexually deceptive orchids." $15,000
Woodward, Catherine L. CEIBA Foundation. "Orchid conservation program of El Pahuma Orchid Reserve, Ecuador." $10,985

2001–02

Averyanov, Dr. Leonid V. Komarov Botanical Institute, Russia. "Population studies of endemic Paphiopedilum species in Northern Vietnam." $6,600
Dixon, Dr. Kingsley and Krauss, Dr. Siegy. Kings Park and Botanic Garden. "Genetic specificity of native terrestrial orchids and their endophytic fungi using DNA fingerprinting: essential information for the restoration of orchids in urban bushland remnants." $11,900
Packer, Dr. Laurence. York University. "Conservation genetics of orchid bees." $2,500

2002–03

Alvarez, Aida. New York Botanical Garden. "Phylogeny of Prescottiinae and Systematics of Gomphichis Lindl. (Orchidaceae)." $3,500

2002–04

Gowland, Kellie Maria. Australian National University. "Can Orchids communicate? Host and fungal specificity amongst Australian epiphytic orchids." $13,832
Williams, Dr. Norris H. University of Florida. "What is Oncidium? Phylogenetics as a prelude to a revised classification of Oncidiumand related genera." $10,802

2003–04

Averyanov, Dr. Leonid V. Komarov Botanical Institute, Russia. "Discovery of endemic orchid flora in remote limestone areas of Northern Vietnam." $7,600
Dueck, Lucy. University of Georgia. "Molecular Phylogeny of North American Spiranthes Orchids." $6,450
Vitt, Patti. Chicago Botanic Garden. "The effects of hand pollination on growth, survival and reproduction in Plantanthera leucophaea and P. praeclara." $7,500

2003-05

Schulman, Joanna. University of Texas, Austin. "Phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus Phalaenopsis (Orchidaceae) using chloroplast and nuclear markers." $11,158

2004-05

Kennedy, Aaron H. Miami University, Ohio. "Phylogeny, evolution and mycorrhizal specificity in the myco-heterotrophic orchid genus Hexalectris Raf. (Orchidaceae). $7,422

2005-07

Kramer, Elena. Harvard University. "Integrating Phylogeny, Biomechanics, and pollination Ecology in a Study of the Genus Catasetum." $11,400

2006

Cowden, Nancy and Gannicott, Priscilla. Lynchburg College. "Floral Fragrance Variation and Reproductive Success in Cypripedium parviflorum var. pubescens Willd. (Large Yellow Lady's-Slipper) Populations." $6,566

2006-08

Whitten, Dr. Mark. University of Florida. "Molecular Systematics of the Neotropical Sobralieae: Parting the Reeds of Sobralia and Relatives." $7,096

2007-09

Averyanov, Dr. Leonid V. Komarov Botanical Institute, Russia. "Exploration of Orchid Flora in Laos and Allied Areas of Vietnam." $7,000
Williams, Dr. Norris. University of Florida. "Comparative chloroplast genomics of Orchidaceae." $14,580

2011

Fernandez-Concha, German Carnevali. Centro de Investigacion Cientifica de Yucatan. "Systematic and evolution of Encyclia Hook. S.s. (Orchidaceae: Laeliinae) with emphasis in Megamexico." $9,545
Lyon, Stephanie and Dr. Thomas J. Givnish. University of Wisconsin. "Phylogeny, species delimitation, and patterns of mycorrhizal association in the corysanthes clade (genus Corybas, Orchidaceae)." $8,118

2013

Averyanov, Dr. Leonid V. Komarov Botanical Institute, Russia. Paphiopedilum canhii. $6,500

2013

Averyanov, Dr. Leonid V. Komarov Botanical Institute, Russia. Paphiopedilum canhii. $6,500

2018

Anne Damon, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Mexico. Interaction between orchid mycorrizae and Lasiodiplodia sp., fungal pathogen of the endangered, epiphytic orchid Guarianthe skinneri (Bateman) Dressler & W. E. Higgins, in southwest Mexico. $7686, three years.Keleys Huisman, University of Wisconsin, USA. Plant-microbial interactions in Teagueia: a rapidly evolving and understudied lineage of orchids within the Andean biodiversity hotspot. $2500, one year.

Brian Morton, University of Wisconsin, USA. Conservation of North America’s native Vanilla species: Population genetics, microbiome metabarcoding, and in vitro seed germination. $3535, one year.

Tobias Policha, University of Oregon, USA. Exploration of a Threatened Andean Orchid Flora. $9158, one year.

2018

Anne Damon, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Mexico. Interaction between orchid mycorrizae and Lasiodiplodia sp., fungal pathogen of the endangered, epiphytic orchid Guarianthe skinneri (Bateman) Dressler & W. E. Higgins, in southwest Mexico. $7686, three years.Keleys Huisman, University of Wisconsin, USA. Plant-microbial interactions in Teagueia: a rapidly evolving and understudied lineage of orchids within the Andean biodiversity hotspot. $2500, one year.

Brian Morton, University of Wisconsin, USA. Conservation of North America’s native Vanilla species: Population genetics, microbiome metabarcoding, and in vitro seed germination. $3535, one year.

Tobias Policha, University of Oregon, USA. Exploration of a Threatened Andean Orchid Flora. $9158, one year.

2019

Julian Koob. MSc-student SUNY Syracuse. Interactions between photosynthetic capability and mycorrhizal colonization of a mixotrophic orchid (Epipactis helleborine) under varying light levels in the field. $920.

Patrick A. Smallwood. Ph.D.-student University of Georgia. Does mycorrhizal specificity vary across the range of Cypripedium acaule (Orchidaceae) and how does this relationship influence the orchid's ability to establish new populations and expand its range? $8659.

Jacopo Calevo. Ph.D.-student University of Torino, Italy. The dark side of orchid symbiosis: does Tulasnella calospora wear a seasonal mask? $2,784.

Jeremy Rentsch. Prof. at Francis Marion University. Chloroplast haplotype network of the Southern Twayblade, Neottia bifolia (Asparagales: Orchidaceae), on the Francis Marion University campus, South Carolina, USA. $2,000.

Michael Hough, MSc. SUNY Cortland. The Status of Spiranthes Incurva (Jenn.) M.C. Pace in NY $1,628.

Benjamin Crain. Post-Doc at Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. Researching symbiotic, relationships for advancement of orchid conservation in a global biodiversity hotspot. $10,000.

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