CBR/AOS An American Orchid Society award denoting a Certificate of Botanical Recognition, awarded to a cultivar of a species or natural hybrid deemed worthy of recognition for rarity, novelty and educational value.

CCE/AOS An American Orchid Society award denoting a Certificate of Cultural Excellence, awarded to the exhibitor of a specimen plant that scores at least 90 points, a plant with robust health and appearance and an unusually large number of flowers.

CCM/AOS An American Orchid Society award denoting a Certificate of Cultural Merit, awarded to the exhibitor of a specimen that scores between 80 and 89 points, a plant with robust health and appearance and an unusually large number of flowers.

CHM/AOS An American Orchid Society award denoting a Certificate of Horticultural Merit, awarded to a cultivar of a well-grown and well-flowered species or natural hybrid with outstanding esthetic appeal that contributes to the horticultural aspects of orchidology.

Cadetia (ka-DET-ee-ah) A principally Australasian genus of about 60 diminutive, caespitose epiphytic species previously included in a broadly defined Dendrobium.

caducous (kuh-DOO-cuss) Said of plant parts falling early.

caesius -a, -um (see-see-us) Bluish-gray.

CaespitoseMasdevallia dracula has a caespitose growth habit.

caespitose (SESS-pih-tohs) Growing in small dense clumps or tufts.

caespitosus -a, -um (ses-pi-TOH-sus) Growing in tufts or dense clumps; forming a turf or mat.

calathiform (KAL-ih-thuh-form) Cup-shaped.

Caladenia (kal-a-DEN-ee-ah) A genus of about 100 species of terrestrial orchids from Australia, Indonesia, New Caledonia and New Zealand, often called the "Australian Spider Orchids." The genus was described by Robert Brown in 1810, the name referring to the rows of beautiful glandular hairs on the lip.

Calanthe (kal-AN-thee) A genus of terrestrial or semi-epiphytic orchids primarily from Africa, tropical Asia, Australia and the Pacific Islands. Related to Phaius, it was described by Robert Brown in 1821, the name derived from the Greek meaning "beautiful flower." One nondescript species, Calanthe calanthoides, is found in the New World.

calcaratus, -a, -um (kal-kar-AY-tus) Spurred; having a spur; calcarate.

calcareus, -a, -um (kal-KAIR-ee-us) Pertaining to or having a preference for lime; calcareous. 

calcariformis, -e (kal-kair-i-FORM-iss) Spur-formed; shaped like a calcar or spur; calcariform.

calceolatus, -a, -um (kal-see-oh-LAY-tus) Having a slipper-shaped organ; shaped like a shoe; calceolate.

calceolus (kal-see-OH-lus) Shaped like a little shoe.

Caleana (kal-ee-AN-ah) A genus of terrestrial orchids from Australia and New Zealand. Popularly known as the "flying duck orchids," it was founded by Robert Brown in 1810, the name honoring George Caley, once superintendent of the Botanic Garden in St. Vincent, who greatly assisted Brown in collecting plants in the Sydney area.

californicus, -a, -um (kal-i-FOR-ni-kus) Of California; Californian.

callistus, -a, -um (kal-LISS-tus) Very beautiful.

callosity (kal-LOSS-i-tee) A thickened and hardened part; a callus.

callosus, -a, -um (kal-LOH-sus) Having a hard protuberance or thickening; thick-skinned; with calluses; callose.

Callus: on the lip of Caularthron bicornutum.

callus (KALL-us) A hard protuberance or thickening (plural: calli)

calochilus, -a, -um (kal-oh-KYE-lus) Having a beautiful lip.

Calopogon (kal-oh-POH-gon) A genus of five species of terrestrial orchids restricted to the United States and Canada. Allied to Bletilla and Arethusa, it was founded by Robert Brown in 1813, the name adapted from the Greek meaning "beautiful beard," in reference to the brightly colored fringed crest on the lip. 

Calyculate (kuh-LICK-yuh-late) Having bracts around the calyx resembling the outer calyx

Calypso (ka-LIP-so) A monotypic terrestrial genus widely distributed throughout the North Temperate Zone in both hemispheres. It was named by Salisbury in 1807, dedicated to the Greek sea-nymph, Calypso, suggesting its preference for secluded habitats.

calyptratus, -a, -um (kal-lip-TRAY-tus) Having a small cap-shaped hood; calyptrate.

calyptriformis, -e (kal-lip-tree-FORM-iss) Hood-shaped; like a cap pulled over; calyptriform.

Calyptrochilum (kuh-lip-trow-KYE-lum) In 1895, Kraenzlin identified this epiphytic genus from tropical Africa, coining the name from two Greek words for "veil" and "lip" in reference to the calyptrate condition of the lip. There are two known species in the genus.

calyx (KAY-liks) The outer of the two series of floral segments.

Camarotis (KAM-ah-ROE-tis) This epiphytic or lithophytic genus of 70 species, widespread in the Pacific basin from the Philippines south to Australia, was described by Lindley in 1833. He derived the generic name from the Greek word "arched" to denote the lip's chambered structure. This genus is considered by many taxonomists to be synonymous with Micropera.

campanulatus, -a, -um (kam-pan-yew-LAY-tus) Bell-shaped; cup-shaped with broad base; campanulate

campestris, -e (kam-PES-tris) Of the fields or open plains.

Campylocentrum (kam-pil-loh-SEN-trum) A genus of around 64 species of epiphytic orchids from tropical America, especially Brazil, notable for the many species that have no leaves. It was established by Bentham in 1881, the name derived from the Greek and meaning "crooked spur" in reference to the slender and sharply curved spur of the lip.

canaliculatus, -a, -um (kan-al-ik-yew-LAY-tus) Longitudinally channeled; striated, with longitudinal grooves; canaliculate.

candidus, -a, -um (KAN-did-us) Pure, lustrous white; shining or pure white.

canescens (kan-ESS-enz) With off-white or gray hairs; canescent.

canus, -a, -um (KAY-nus) Off-white; gray; ash-colored.

cap (kap) A sac-like removable covering of a part, as the operculum or anther-cap.

Capanemia (kap-an-EEM-ee-a) The 16 epiphytic species in this genus are found in Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina. Joao Barbosa Rodrigues described the genus in 1877, naming it in honor of Dr. G.S. Capanema.

capensis, -e (kape-EN-siss) From the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa.

capillaris, -e (kap-ill-AIR-iss) Hairlike; resembling a hair; very slender.

capillatus, -a, -um (kap-ill-AY-tus) Shaped like a head; growing on a head or dense cluster; capitate.

capitulum (ka-PIT-yew-lum) A little head; a close body of sessile flowers.

capsule (kap-sewyl) A dry dehiscent fruit composed of more than one carpel; the seed-pod.

Captan (KAP-tan) A fungicide used as a curative or preventive spray against bacterial and fungal diseases.

cardinalis, -e (kar-din-AY-liss) Scarlet; cardinal red.

caricinus, -a, -um (kar-i-SYN-us) Resembling a rushlike or grasslike plant or Carex; sedge-like.

carina (ka-RYE-na) A keel-like part or ridge on the surface of a leaf or floral segment; (plural: carinae).

carinatus, -a, -um (ka-ri-NAYT-us) Keeled; having a keel or keels; carinate.

Cariniferus: The lip of this Cattleya hybrid is cariniferus.

cariniferus, -a, -um (ka-ri-NIFF-er-us) Having a keel; keel-bearing; cariniferous.

carneus, -a, -um
 (kar-NEE-us) Flesh-colored; deep pink; carneous.

carnosus, -a, -um (kar-NOH-sus) Fleshy; pulpy; carnose.

carotene (KAIR-oh-teen) A ruby-red crystalline hydrocarbon found as a pigment in many plants; by extension, any carotenoid hydrocarbon.

carotenoid. (ka-RA-ten-oyd) A type of naturally occurring fat-soluble pigment responsible for the yellow through orange shades of flower color.

carpel (KAR-pel) The cell of a simple fruit or pistil, or one of the cells of a compound fruit or pistil.

Carr, Cedric Erroll (1892—1936) A famed collector of Borneo and New Guinea orchids and author of several papers, associated with the Singapore Botanic Garden.

carthagenensis, -e (kar-tha-jin-EN-sis) From Carthagena, Colombia.

cartilaginous (kar-ti-LAJ-in-us) Hard and tough; resembling cartilage.

Castaneous (Kass-tane-ee-us) Dark brown, as in chestnut.

cataphyll (KAT-a-fill) An undeveloped leaf, as at the beginning of a growth; a rudimentary leaf form, as a bud scale, at the beginning of a growth.

Catasetum (kat-a-SEE-tum) A genus of around 100 species of chiefly epiphytic orchids from tropical America, allied to Mormodes and Cycnoches It was established by L.C. Richard in 1822, the name derived from the Greek and referring to the antenna-like processes of the column of the flowers. The genus is unusual in having unisexual flowers.

Cattleya (KAT-lee-ah) A tropical American genus of about 45 species of showy-flowered epiphytic orchids related to Epidendrum, Laelia and Brassavola. It was founded by Lindley in 1824 and dedicated by him to William Cattley, of Barnet, England, an ardent horticulturist and patron of botany.

Cattleyopsis (kat-lee-OP-siss)  A genus of eight species of dwarf epiphytes from the Antilles, especially Cuba, now considered to be synonymous with Broughtonia, it was described by Lemaire in 1853, the name indicating the resemblance of the flowers to those of the genus Cattleya.

Cattleytonia (kat-lee-TOH-nee-ah) A hybrid genus between Broughtonia and Cattleya created in 1956.

Caucaea. This epiphytic genus of about 10 species is from northern South America and was originally described as Abola by Lindley in 1853 and transferred to its present genus in 1934 by Mansfield, who derived the name from the Colombian province of Cauca. 

cauda (KAW-da) A slender tail-like appendage (plural: caudae).

caudatus, -a, -um (kaw-DAY-tus) Furnished with a tail or tails; caudate.

caudicle (KAW-dik-ul) A slender stalk-like appendage of the pollinium or pollen mass.

Caularthron (kawl-AR-thron)  The name given by Rafinesque in 1836 to a genus of four species of tropical American epiphytic orchids allied to Cattleya and Schomburgkia, until recently known by the later name of Diacrium, proposed by Bentham in 1881; derived from the Greek for "stem" and "joint" in reference to the jointed appearance of the pseudobulbs.

caulescens (kaw-LESS-enz) Having a tendency to develop stems; producing a visible stem; caulescent.

cauline (KAW-line) Of or on the stem; growing on a stem.

cavus, -a, -um (KAY-vus) Hollow; having a pit or excavation; cavity.

cebolleta (seh-boh-LEE-tah) The leaves of one Oncidium, which resemble those of the chive (Allium schoenoprasum), the Spanish name for which is cebolleta.

cell (sell) One of the ultimate compartments of which plants are composed; a cavity, compartment or locule or an ovary or anther.

cellular (sell-EWE-lar) Composed of cells; arranged in the manner of cells.

centimeter (SEN-ti-mee-ter) A measure of length equal to 0.3937 inch (2.54 cm = 1 inch) or 10 millimeters.

Central America (sen-truhl uh-MER-ih-kuh) Continental North America south of Mexico, comprising Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and Belize; synonymous with Mesoamerica.

centrifugal (sen-TRIFF-uh-gul) Moving or directed outward from the center.

centripetal (sen-TRIP-uh-tul) Moving or directed toward the center.

centrum (SEN-trum) The central part of any structure; particularly the large central air space in hollow stems.

Cephalantheropsis (Sef-ah-lan-ther-OP-sis) A small terrestrial genus of about 4 species that is widespread from Japan to Thailand. Guillaumin founded the genus in 1960 and coined the generic name for its resemblance to Cephalathera.

cepifolius, -a, -um (sep-i-FOH-lee-us) Having leaves resembling those of the onion.

cepiformis, -e (sep-i-FORM-is) Onion-shaped.

ceraceus, -a, -um (se-RAY-see-us) Like wax; waxy; ceraceous.

Ceratostylis (ser-at-oh-STY-liss) Blume described this epiphytic genus of 60 species in 1825, deriving the generic name from the Greek words for "horn" and "style" to describe the column's hornlike appearance.

cereolus -a, -um (se-ree-OH-lus) Waxy.

cerinus -a, -um (seer-EYE-nus) Wax-colored; waxy.

cernuus -a, -um (ser-NEW-us) Somewhat pendulous, drooping, nodding.

chaff (chaf) Said of bracts and scales that become dry and membranelike.

Chamaengis (kam-ENG-is) Schlechter first described this epiphytic genus in 1915, deriving the generic name from two Greek words for "lowly" and "vessel" to describe the swollen vessel-like spur. There are about 15 species found in tropical Africa and the islands to the east of Africa.

channeled (CHAN-uld) Deeply grooved lengthwise; canaliculate.

chartaceous (kar-TAY-shus) Having the texture of writing paper; papery.

Chaubardia (shaw-BARD-ee-a)  A small epiphytic genus of about five species native to tropical South America and Trinidad. H.G. Reichenbach established the genus in 1852, naming it in honor of M. Chaubard, a friend, and student of European flora.

Chaubardiella (shaw-BARD-ee-ell-a)  In 1969, Garay removed five epiphytic species from Chaubardia because they had a distinct rostellum and lacked pseudobulbs. The generic name indicates the flowers' resemblance to Chaubardia

Chelonistele (kel-on-ih-STEE-lee) . This epiphytic or lithophytic genus of 12 species comes from Southeast Asia with the majority of the species found in Borneo. Pfitzer established the genus in 1907, coining the name from two Greek words for "turtle" and "column" to identify the winged column.

chemotaxonomy (kee-mo-tax-ON-oh-mee) The use of chemical evidence in elucidating taxonomic relationships.

Chiloglottis (kye-lo-GLOTT-is) Brown established the genus of about 23 Australian and New Zealand terrestrial species in 1810. He derived the generic name from two Greek words for "lip" and "gullet" as he felt the lip resembles the human throat.

Chiloschista (kyle-oh-SHISS-tah)  About 20 epiphytic Asian and Australian leafless orchids, previously maintained in a broadly defined Sarcochilus.

chimaera (kime-AIR-a) A mythological monster that spouted fire; said of plants composed of mixed genetic tissues. Said of a plant having three pink and one white flower, the white flower being brought about by a chimaera.

chinensis, -e (chie-NEN-sis) From China. See also sinensis.

Chloraea (klor-A-a) There are around 50 terrestrial species in this genus ranging across the midsection of South America. First described by Lindley in 1827, who coined the name from the Greek word meaning "pale green" to describe the flower color on the type specimen.

chloranthus, -a, -um (klo-RAN-thus) Having green or greenish yellow flowers.

chlorochilon (klo-ro-KYE-lon) Green-lipped; having a green lip.

chlorophyll (KLOR-oh-fill) The green pigment in plants that is essential in their manufacture of food.

chloroplast (KLOR-oh-plast) A plastid containing chlorophyll, developed only in cells exposed to the light, functioning in photosynthesis and starch formation.

chlorops (KLOR-ops) Pale green; green-eyed.

chlorotic (klor-OT-ik) Abnormally yellowed, due to a breaking down of the chlorophyll.

chocoensis (cho-ko-EN-siss) Native of the Colombian province of Choco.

Chondrorhyncha (kon-droh-RINK-ah)  A genus of about 27 species of epiphytic orchids from the American tropics, related to Cochleanthes and Kefersteinia. It was described by Lindley in 1846, the name derived from the Greek for cartilage and beak, in reference to the beak-like rostellum.

chromogen (KRO-mo-jen) The color-generating material in a cell; genes for color.

chromoplast (KROH-mo-plast) A pigmented plastid containing red or yellow pigment, as distinguished from the chloroplast, which contains green pigment; the coloring matter of flowers and fruits.

chromosome (KROH-muh-sohm) One of the rodlike or beadlike bodies visible in the nucleus during division, which contain the genetic units or genes.

chrysanthus, -a, -um (cries-AN-thus) Golden-flowered.

chrysocrepis, -e (cries-oh-KREEP-iss) Golden-shoed.

Chrysocycnis (kry-so-SICK-nees) This epiphytic genus of four species is found in Central America and Andean South America. Linden and Reichenbach founded the genus in 1834, deriving the name from the Greek words for "golden" and "swan" as they likened the flowers to golden swans.

chrysothyrsus, -a, -um (cries-oh-THEER-sus) Golden-racemed, a compact lilac-like inflorescence (thyrse) of golden flowers.

chrysotis, -e (cries-OH-tis) Golden-eared.

Chrysotoxum: Dendrobium chrysotoxum.

chrysotoxus, -a, -um (cries-oh-TOKS-us) Golden-arched.

Chysis (KYE-siss) A genus of nine species of epiphytic orchids from tropical America bearing pendent, club-like pseudobulbs, founded by Lindley in 1837. The name is derived from the Greek meaning melting, in allusion to the appearance of the pollinia due to self-fertilization of the flowers before opening.

ciliaris, -e (sil-ee-AIR-is) Fringed with hairs; ciliate.

ciliatus, -a, -um (sil-ee-AY-tus) Marginally fringed with hairs that are usually stiff like eye-lashes; ciliate.

cinereus, -a, -um (sin-AIR-ee-us) Ash-colored; light gray.

cinnabarinus, -a, -um (sin-na-bar-EYE-nus) Vermillion-colored; cinnabar red.

cinnamomeus, -a, -um (sin-na-MOH-mee-us) Cinnamon-colored; brown, like cinnamon.

circinatus, -a, -um (sir-sin-AY-tus) Coiled; rolled up on the axis with the apex at the center of the coil; circinate.

circumboreal (sir-kum-BOHR-e-al) In northern regions around the world.

circumscissile (sir-kum-SISS-ul) Opening or dehiscing of a fruit or anther at a line around the circumference.

cirratus, -a, -um (si-RAY-tus) Equipped with tendrils or cirri; cirrate.

Cirrhaea (ser-A-a)  To recognize the slender rostellum, Lindley used the Latin word for "tendril" when he described this genus in 1825. There are seven epiphytic species in this Brazilian genus.

cirrhiferous (si-RIFF-e-rus) Tendril-bearing.

Cirrhopetalum (seer-oh-PET-al-um) A primarily Asiatic genus consisting of numerous species, considered by many taxonomists to be part of a broadly defined Bulbophyllum, usually characterized by flowers in umbels and hence their common name "daisy orchids." See Bulbophyllum.

cirrhus (SEER-rus) The tendril-like extension on lips of some Phalaenopsis, or other organs in other genera, such as the column of some species of Catasetum (plural: cirrhi; also, cirrus, cirri). 

CischweinfiaCischweinfia rostrata is found from Colombia to Ecuador.

Cischweinfia (see-SHVINE-fee-ah) A genus of about 10 species of Neotropical orchids formerly included in Aspasia or Trichopilia.

citrinus, -a, -um (si-TRYE-nus) Lemon-colored.

citrosmus, -a, -um (si-TROZ-mus) Lemon-scented.

clade (kleyd) A taxon consisting of a single species and all its descendents.

cladogram (KLAY-doh-gram) A branching diagram depicting the successive points of species divergence from common ancestral lines without regard to the degree of deviation. 

clasping (klasp-ing) Enveloping or embracing, such as a leaf surrounding a stem.

clavatus, -a, -um (klav-AY-tus) Club-shaped; solid cylindrical, slender at the base and gradually thickening upward; clavate.

clavellatus, -a, -um (klav-el-LAY-tus) Shaped like a small club; clavellate; diminutive of clavate.

claw (klaw) The long, narrow, stalklike base of a petal, sepal or lip.

clawed (klawd) Furnished with a claw.

cleft (kleft) Deeply cut.

Cleisostoma (kly-soh-STOH-mah) There are almost 100 epiphytic species in this small-flowered genus that is widespread from India to the Philippines and south to Australia. Blume founded the genus in 1825 and derived the name from two Greek words for "closed" and "mouth," a reference to the callus that almost closes the spur entrance.

Cleistes (KLY-steez) About 40 species of this terrestrial genus range from Florida south to Brazil. Although the genus was first named by Richards in 1818, it was not validly published until 1840 by Lindley. The name was derived from the Greek word for "closed," a reference to some species whose flowers never fully open.

cleistogamous (klise-TOG-a-mus) Self-fertilizing in the unopened or just opened flower.

clinandrium (kli-NAN-dree-um) The anther-bed, that part of the column in which the anther lies (plural: clinandria).

clone (KLOHN) An individual plant raised from a single seed, with all its subsequent vegetative propagations. Clonal names are designated by single quotes in the plant name. For instance, the single seedling of the grex Slc. Hazel Boyd designated by the name Frae would be Slc.Hazel Boyd 'Frae'. All divisions of this seedling would also carry that clonal name. 

Clowes, Rev. John H.
(1777—1846) An ardent orchid grower at Broughton Hall near Manchester whose fine orchid collection was bequeathed to Kew, his name being commemorated in a number of notable species such as Miltonia clowesii.

clypeatus, -a, -um (kli-pee-AY-tus) Shield-like; resembling a Roman shield; clypeate.

cm (see centimeter).

Coaetaneous (ko-eh-TANE-ee-us) Said of plants flowering as their leaves emerge.

coalesce (koh-uh-less) To merge; to grow together, referring to similar parts of a flower.

coalescence (koh-uh-less-ence) The union of similar parts or organs, or of those in the same series, as stamens with stamens and petals with petals. 

coarctatus, -a, -um (ko-ark-TAY-tus) Pressed or crowded together; coarctate.

coccineus, -a, -um (kok-SIN-ee-us) Bright scarlet.

Cochleanthes (kok-lee-AN-theez) A genus of about 13 species of tropical American epiphytic orchids formerly known as Warscewiczella, related to Chondrorhyncha, containing species until recently ascribed to Zygopetalum and allied genera. The genus was established by Rafinesque in 1836, the name alluding to the shell-like character of the flowers of the type species, described earlier in 1836 as Zygopetalum cochleare by Lindley.

cochlearis, -e (kok-lee-AY-ris) Spoon-shaped; shaped like one valve of clam shell.

cochleate (koke-ley-ate) Spiraled like a snail shell.

cochleatus, -a, -um (kok-lee-AY-tus) Shaped like a snail shell; spiral; cochleate.

Cochlioda (kok-lee-OH-dah)  A genus of about nine species of epiphytic Andean orchids in the Oncidium alliance. It was described by Lindley in 1853, the name suggested by the shell-like calluses on the lip.

CoelestisRhynchostylis coelestis has sky-blue flowers.

coelestis, -e (see-LESS-tis) Sky-blue.

Coelia (SEE-lee-ah)  A genus of five species of epiphytic (occasionally terrestrial) orchids from Mexico, Central America and the West Indies that includes plants previously known as Bothriochilus. It was established in 1830 by Lindley based on a drawing by the botanical artist Bauer that incorrectly indicated a "hollow structure" to which the name refers in Greek.

Coeliopsis (SEE-lee-op-sis) This monotypic epiphytic genus comes from Costa Rica. H.G. Reichenbach described it in 1872 and derived the name from two Greek words for "hollow" and "appearance" due to its resemblance to Coelia.

Coelogyne (see-LOJ-in-ee)  A genus of about 100 species of chiefly epiphytic orchids from tropical Asia, described by Lindley in 1822, the name suggesting the deeply excavated stigma.

coerulescens (see-roo-LESS-enz) Almost dark blue; becoming dark blue.

caerulescens (see-roo-LESS-enz) Having a tendency to blue; bluish.

caeruleus, -a, -um (see-ROOL-ee-us) Sky-blue.

coeruleus, -a, -um (see-ROO-lee-us) Dark blue.

co-evolution (ko-ev-uh-LOO-shun) The principle that biological organisms do not evolve independently from each other; sometimes applied to the tandem evolution of orchid flowers and their pollinators.

Cogniaux, Celestin Alfred (1841—1916) Eminent Belgian botanist who treated the orchids of Brazil, the West Indies and tropical America in general, and also wrote the text for Goossens' color-illustrated series Dictionnaire Iconographique des Orchidés. 

coherent (koh-HEER-uhnt) Having similar parts united.

cohesion (ko-HEE-zhon) The union of two or more organs of same kind.

Colax (KOH-laks) See Pabstia.

colchicine (kohl-chi-SEEN) A carcinogenic compound used to double chromosome numbers artificially through the interference of microtubule function during mitosis.

collateral (kuh-LAT-er-uhl) By the side; standing side by side.

collinus, -a, -um (kol-LYE-nus) Pertaining to or from a hill.

Colman, Sir Jeremiah (1859—1942) Eminent English patron of horticulture who assembled an outstanding collection of orchids at Gatton Park, he pioneered in many areas of orchid hybridization, especially in developing flowers of blue tones and fine yellows. 

Colmanara (kohl-man-AH-rah) A hybrid genus derived from Miltonia, Odontoglossum and Oncidium, it was created in 1963 and named for Sir Jeremiah Colman. 

coloratus, -a, -um (kol-or-AY-tus) Colored.

colossus (ko-LAHS-sus) Large; of gigantic size; colossal.

columnar (kuh-LUHM-ner) Column- or pillar-shaped.

column (KOL-uhm-n) The central organ of the orchid flower, formed by the union of the stamens and pistils.

column foot (KOL-uhm-n foot) In some orchids, the extension of the base of the column to which the lip is attached; part of a mentum (which see) when fused with the lateral sepals.

column wings (KOL-uhm-n wingz) Flange-like appendages protruding from the column of some orchid genera, such as Oncidium.

Compot: a typical community pot.

community pot (kuh-MYOO-ni-tee pot) A pot containing numerous small seedlings of an orchid progeny, transplanted from a flask. See compot. 

comatus, -a, -um (koh-MAY-tus) Furnished with hair; hairy.

communis, -e (ko-MEW-nis) Common; general; growing in company.

commutatus, -a, -um (ko-mew-TAY-tus) Changed, or changing.

comose (KOH-mose) Bearing a tuft or tufts of hair.

compactus, -a, -um (kom-PAK-tus) Compact; dense.

Comparettia (kom-pa-RET-ee-a)   A genus of eight or nine species of epiphytic orchids found chiefly in the Andes of Colombia and Ecuador (one species extending to Mexico and the West Indies), allied to Trichocentrum and Ionopsis. It was founded by Poeppig and Endlicher in 1835 to honor Sr. Andreo Comparetti, an eminent plant physiologist and professor of botany of Padua, Italy.

complanatus, -a, -um (kom-plan-AY-tus) Flattened; leveled; complanate.

complexus, -a, -um (kom-PLEX-us) Encircled; embraced.

complicate (KOM-pli-kate) Folded over or back on itself.

compot (KOM-pot) A container with many seedlings in proximity prior to their spacing and growing on as individual plantlets.

compound (KOM-pound) Composed of a number of similar parts or divided into a number of similar divisions.

compressus, -a, -um (kom-PRESS-us) Flattened, especially laterally; compressed.

concavus, -a, -um (kon-KA-vus) Hollowed out, basin shaped, concave.

conchiformis, -e (kon-chee-FORM-is) In the form of a shell; shell-shaped; conchiform. 

concinnus, -a, -um (kon-SIN-nus) Neat; elegant; well-made.

concolor (KON-kol-or) Of the same color throughout; uniformity of hue in sepals and petals.

conduplicate (kon-DOO-pli-kayt) Folded together lengthwise so both halves are together at their faces; refers to character of leaves or petals within the bud.

confluent (kon-FLEW-ent) Merging into each other; blended into one; convergent.

conformis, -e (kon-FORM-is) Conforming to the type; similar to related species. 

congeneric (kon-jen-AIR-ik) Belonging to the same genus.

congestus, -a, -um (kon-JEST-us) Crowded very closely together; collected into a mass or body; congested.

conglomeratus, -a,-um (kon-glo-mer-AY-tus) Clustered; brought together; conglomerate.

conical (kon-ih-kul) Cone-shaped.

conjugatus, -a, -um (kon-joo-GAY-tus) Joined in pairs; coupled; conjugate.

conjunctus, -a, -um (kon-JUNK-tus) Conjoined; joined together; conjunct.

connate (kon-nate) Having one organ attached wholly or in part to a like organ. For instance fused lateral sepals. 

connatus, -a, -um (kon-NAY-tus) United; twin; having similar organs joined together; connate.

connective (kon-NEK-tiv) The tissue joining the two cells of the anther.

connivent (kon-NYE-vent) Said of organs that stick together but are not fused (connate). Such parts appear to be fused but are actually free. Some Bulbophyllum exhibit lateral sepals that are connivent. 

conopseus, -a, -um (kon-OP-see-us) Resembling a gnat; canopied.

conspersus, -a, -um (kon-SPUR-sus) Scattered.

constrictus, -a, -um (kon-STRIK-tus) Drawn together; constricted.

convallarioides (kon-val-lar-ee-OY-deez) Resembling a Convallaria, or lily-of-the-valley.

convex (kon-veks) Having a more or less rounded surface; bulging outward and curved.

convolute (KON-vo-loot) Rolled up longitudinally.

cool-house (kool-hous) A greenhouse with minimum night temperature of 50 degrees F.

co-pigments (ko-pig-mentz) A type of flavonoid that is pale yellow to colorless and complexes with the anthocyanin pigments to form the visible color that naturally occurs within flowers.

coralloid (kor-al-loyd) Like coral.

Corallorhiza (kor-al-loh-RYE-zah) A genus of 15 species of saprophytic orchids native chiefly to North America and Mexico but also found in Europe and Asia, allied to Aplectrum and established by Robert Brown in 1813, the name describing the coral-like appearance of the roots, hence the popular name of "coral-root."

cordatus, -a, -um (kor-DAY-tus) Heart-shaped; cordate.

coriaceus, -a, -um (kor-ee-AY-see-us) Leathery in texture; thick and tough; coriaceous.

cork (kork) The bark of the cork oak, a generic term for plaques or slabs made of cork. 

cormatose (kor-mah-toze) Producing corms.

corm (korm) A swollen, fleshy bulb-like base of a stem, without scales and usually subterranean.

corneus, -a, -um (kor-NEE-us) Horny; hard and very dense in texture; corneous.

corniculatus, -a, -um (kor-nik-yew-LAY-tus) Bearing or terminating in a small horn-like protuberance or process; horned; corniculate.

cornigerus, -a, -um (kor-NIJ-er-us) Bearing or being furnished with horns.

cornu-cervi (kor-new-SIR-vee) Stag's horn; flattened like an anther.

cornucopiate (kor-nu-KOH-pee-ayt) Shaped like a cornucopia or horn of plenty.

cornutus, -a, -um (kor-NEW-tus) Horned, or horn-shaped; cornute.

corolla (ko-ROL-la) Combined term for all the petals; the inner of the two series of floral segments, but the term is rarely used in reference to orchid flowers.

coronarius, -a, -um (ko-ro-NAYR-ee-us) Of or like a crown; used for or pertaining to garlands; encircling like a crown.

correct name (kuh-rekt neym) The earliest legitimate name available for a plant except as provided otherwise by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.

Correll, Donovan S.
(1908—1993) American botanist, co-author with Oakes Ames of the Orchidaceae for the Flora of Guatemala,(1952—1953, 1965) author of the Orchids of North America (1950). 

corrugatus, -a, -um (ko-roo-GAY-tus) Wrinkled or in folds; corrugated.

Coryanthes (ko-ree-AN-theez)  A genus of 44 species of epiphytes with extraordinary flowers from the American tropics commonly called bucket orchids, related to Stanhopea and Gongora, it was described by Hooker in 1831, the name derived from the Greek meaning "helmet flower" in reference to the helmet-shaped epichile of the lip.

Corybas (KOR-ee-bus) The more than 100 terrestrial species in this genus are widespread from the Himalayas to Australia with New Guinea the center of distribution. Salisbury described the genus in 1807, naming it for the priest Korybas.

corymb (KOR-imb) A short and broad, more or less flat-topped flower cluster; a form of centripetal inflorescence in which the outermost flowers expand first.

Corymborkis (KOR-imb-ORE-kiss) The six terrestrial species in this genus are pantropical. Aubert du Petit Thouars established the genus in 1822. He derived the generic name from two Greek words for "corymb", a type of inflorescence appearing flattened or like an inverted duster and the outer flowers opening first, and "orchid" a reference to the type of inflorescence found in the genus.

costatus, -a, -um (kos-TAY-tus) Ribbed, such as the midrib of a leaf; costate.

cotyledon (kot-i-LEE-don) The primary or rudimentary leaf of the embryo of plants.

Cranichis (KRAN-ih-kiss) Olaf Swartz founded the genus in 1788 and derived the name from the Greek word for "helmet" to describe the unique lip on these flowers. There are about 54 species of epiphytes and terrestrials in this genus native to tropical Central and South America.

crassifolius, -a, -um (krass-i-FOH-lee-us) Thick-leaved.

crassinodis, -e (krass-i-NOH-dis) Having remarkably swollen joints, or nodes.

Cremastra (KREE-mass-tra) A terrestrial genus of possibly four species widely distributed in Southeast Asia both in montane regions and at lower levels. Lindley described the genus in 1833, and used the Greek word "flower stalk" to denote the stalked ovary.

crenatus, -a, -um (kren-AY-tus) Having the margin cut into rounded scallops; crenate.

crenulatus, -a, -um (kren-yew-LAY-tus) Shallowly scalloped; minutely crenate; crenulate.

crepidatus, -a, -um (krep-i-DAY-tus) Shaped like an old-fashioned sandal or slipper.

crest (krest) A toothed, fringed or hairy thickened portion of the disc of the lip.

crested (krested) Bearing an elevated appendage or protruding fringes; furnished with a crest.

cretaceus, -a, -um (kret-AY-see-us) Chalky white; pertaining to chalk.

criniferus, -a, -um (kri-NIFF-er-us) Hairy; bearing hairs.

crinitus, -a, -um (kri-NYE-tus) Having hairs upon the surface; furnished with long, generally weak, hairs.

crispus, -a, -um (KRISP-us) Finely waved along the margin; closely curled; crisped.

cristagalli (kris-ta-GAL-lee) A specific name meaning cock's-comb.

cristatus, -a, -um (kris-TAY-tus) Crested; bearing a crest; cristate. 

crock, crocks (krock, krocks) Small pieces of broken earthenware or flowerpots, or other inert substances, placed in the bottom of a pot when repotting, to improve drainage.

cross (kross) To transfer pollen from a flower of one plant to the flower of a different plant; the progeny resulting from such pollination, or from similar pollinations.

cross-pollinate (kross-pol-in-ate) To transfer the pollen from one flower or plant to the stigma of another flower or plant.

cruciatus, -a, -um (kroo-see-AY-tus) Cross-like or cross-shaped; in the form of a cross.

Cruentum: a blood-red spoltch of lip color gives Dendrobium cruentum its name.

cruentus, -a, -um (kroo-EN-tus) The color of blood, or with blood-colored spots.

crumenatus, -a, -um (kroo-men-AY-tus) Purse-shaped.

Cryptochilus (KRIP-toh-KYE-luss) There are four species in this genus native to the Himalayas, which may be either epiphytes or lithophytes. Wallich founded the genus in 1826 and coined the name from two Greek words "hidden" and "lip" to describe the lip that is hidden in the flower.

cryptogam (KRIP-toh-gam) A flowerless plant, such as fern, moss, fungus, seaweed.

Cryptopus(KRIP-toh-pus) The islands of Madagascar and Mascarene are home to the four epiphytic species in this genus. Lindley described it in 1824 and used the Greek words "hidden" and "foot," as originally Lindley thought the stipe and viscidium were hidden in the pouch.

Cryptostylis (KRIP-toh-STYE-liss) Brown first described this genus of about 23 terrestrial species that are widespread in tropical Asia from India to Australia. The generic name was derived from the Greek words meaning "hidden" and "style" to denote that the column is partially hidden by the lip.

crystallinus, -a, -um (kris-tal-LYE-nus) Resembling ice in solidity or translucency; crystalline.

cucullatus, -a, -um (kew-kew-LAY-tus) Hooded or hood-shaped; having the margins curved inward to resemble a hood; cucullate.

cucumerinus, -a, -um (kew-kew-mer-EYE-nus) Resembling a cucumber.

Cuitlauzina (KWEET-law-zee-na)  This Mexican epiphytic genus was named in 1824 by La Llave and Lexaraza. They named it in honor of Cuitlantzin, the governor of Itazpalapa Cuitlautzin in Mexico. Taxonomists consider it to have 1-4 species. 

cultivar (KUHL-tih-vahr) (in orchids) An individual plant and its vegetative propagations in cultivation; a horticultural variety.

cultivation (KUHL-tih-VAY-shun) The artful growing of a plant in a situation other than its natural habitat.

cultratus, -a, -um (kul-TRAY-tus) Shaped like a knife blade.

Cuming, Hugh (1791—1865) English conchologist (the branch of biology devoted to the study of the shells of mollusks) and orchid collector, who collected widely in Chile, Polynesia and the Philippines. 

cuneatus, -a, -um (kew-nee-AY-tus) Wedge-shaped or triangular, with the tapered narrow end at the point of attachment.

Cunningham, Allan
(1791—1839) Orchid collector (for the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew), who spent several years in Brazil and about six years in Australia, providing orchid specimens for Lindley and other botanists. 

cupreus, -a, -um (KEW-pree-us) Copper-colored; coppery.

cupuliform (KUP-ewe-lih-form) Shaped like a cup.

curtus, -a, -um (KER-tus) Shortened.

curvatus, -a, -um (ker-VAY-tus Curved.

curvifolius, -a, -um (ker-vi-FOH-lee-us) With curved leaves.

cuspidatus, -a, -um (kus-pi-DAY-tus) Tipped with a sharp rigid point; cuspidate.

cuticle (KEW-ti-kul) The outermost layer of the cells of the epidermis.

cutting (kuht-ing) A severed vegetative or asexual part of a plant used in propagation. cyaneus, -a, -um (sy-AY-ne-us) Bright blue, azure.

Cycnoches (SIK-no-keez) A genus of tropical American epiphytic orchids with about 36 species, related to Catasetum and Mormodes and described by Lindley in 1832. It is popularly known as the "swan orchid," the generic name alluding to the gracefully arched column of the male flowers, which is indeed swanlike.

cylindricus, -a, -um (sil-IN-dri-kus) Long and slender, the horizontal section circular; cylindrical.

Cymbidiella (sym-bid-ee-ELL-a) The three terrestrial or epiphytic species in this genus are endemic to Madagascar. Rolfe established it in 1918 and chose the diminutive form of Cymbidium because of the close resemblance of these two genera.

Cymbidium (sim-BID-ee-um) An Asian genus more than 50 species of horticulturally important orchids, found chiefly in the Indian Himalayas. It was established by Swartz in 1799, the name derived from the Greek in allusion to the boat-shaped lip.

cymbiformis, -e (sim-bi-FORM-iss) Boat-shaped; convex and keeled.

cyme (SIME) An inflorescence in which the primary axis bears a single central or terminal flower that blooms first. 

cymose (SYE-mohz) Resembling a cyme (see above)..

Cynorkis (sin-ORE-kiss) Madagascar and the Mascarenes are home to most of the more than 100 terrestrial species in the genus, but there are 15 species are native to Africa. Aubert du Petit Thouars described the genus in 1809, deriving the name from the Greek words for "dog" and "testicle" in illusion to the small tubers.

Cypripedium (sip-ree-PEE-dee-um) The common lady's-slipper orchid, a genus of about 64 terrestrial species and natural hybrids distributed in the North Temperate Zone of both hemispheres, it was described by Linnaeus in 1753. The name, incorrectly Latinized from the Greek meaning "Venus sandal," refers to the slipper-like lip.

Cyrptarrhena (KRIP-tah-rehn-a) In 1816, Lindley described this epiphytic genus, of about three species from Central America, South America and the West Indies. He coined the name from the Greek words meaning "hidden" and "stamen," in reference to the unusual column that hides the anther.

Cyrtochilum (sir-toh-KY-lum) A distinctive group of South American orchids usually included in a broadly defined Oncidium, characterized by vinelike inflorescences and narrowly floral segments, with about 125 species. 

Cyrtopodium (sir-toh-POH-dee-um) A genus of 44 species of terrestrial, lithophytic and epiphytic orchids of tropical America, popularly called "cow's-horn orchids," described in 1813 by Robert Brown. The name refers to the upcurved column-foot; plants are noted for their large, colorful floral bracts.

Cyrtorchis (sir-TOR-kiss) A genus of 18 species of angraecoid orchids from tropical Africa, primarily epiphytic. It was described by Schlechter in 1914, the name probably alluding to the fleshy character of the floral segments.

cytokinin (sy-toh-KYN-in) A class of plant hormones.

cytogenetics (sye-toh-je-NET-iks) Study of the part played by cells in heredity, mutation and evolution.

cytology (sye-TOL-oh-jee) The scientific study of cells, especially their formation, structure and functions.