(pronounced: den-DROH-bee-um)


Dendrobieae subtribe Dendrobiinae. Several genera, previously included in a broadly defined Dendrobium, are now recognized as separate genera including Cadetia Gaudichaud, Diplocaulobium (Reichenbach) Kraenzlin, Epigeneium Gagnepain, Flickingeria Hawkes,

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Highly variable epiphytes, lithophytes and terrestrials, miniature to enormous, erect or pendent. Rhizomes short to elongate-trailing. Pseudobulbs cane-like, swollen, or rarely absent, fibrous, often turning yellow when dried, covered with persistent sheaths, sometimes with blackish trichomes. Leaves terete to broad, deciduous or evergreen, thin textured to leathery or rigid, one to many. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, solitary flowers to long scapose racemes, never branched, the floral bracts usually insignificant. Flowers extremely variable in color and shape, ephemeral to extremely long-lasting (over six months in some species). Sepals and petals free, spreading, the lateral sepals fused with the prominent column foot forming a spur-like mentum, sometimes elongate. Lip unlobed or three-lobed, the callus usually of parallel keels, often with a transverse ridge towards the base. Column short, with +/- stelidia; pollinia 4, naked.


Fromthe Greek dendron, meaning tree, and bios, meaning life, referring to the epiphytic habit of the genus.


An extremely diverse genus of about 900 species from India to the islands of the Pacific Ocean.

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Adams, P. B. and D. M. Calder 1982. Flowering, pollination and culture of Dendrobium speciosum Sm. Journ. Orchid Sp. Soc. Victoria 1:6-11.

Adams, P. B. and S. D. Lawson 1987. Pollination of Dendrobium kingianum Bidw. by the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Orchadian 8(12):250-251.

Adams, P. B. and S. D. Lawson 1988. Multiple bee pollinators of Dendrobium kingianum Bidw. in the natural habitat. Orchadian 9:103-107.

Ando, T. 1982. Experimental taxonomy of the genus Dendrobium Swartz (Orchidaceae). I. Crossability of selected species in the section Eugenanthe Schlechter. Tec. Bull. Fac. Hort. Chiba Univ. 30:1-6.

Armstrong, M. 2000. An introduction to the genus Dendrobium.

Dendrobium anosmum. Orchid Rev. 108(1235):295-298.

Atwood, J. T. 1983. Notes from the Orchid Identification Center: Dendrobium rupicola. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 52:22-23.

Atwood, J. T. 1984. The identity of Dendrobium alexandrae. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 53:1178-1179.

Auitrakul, R. 1961. The study of the relationship between sections in the genus Dendrobium from pollen germination. J. Nat. Res. Council, Thailand 2(3):37-47.

Averyanov, L. V. and D. D. Huyen 1989. Rare species of the genus Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) in Vietnamese flora. Bot. Journ. (St. Petersburg) 74:1667-1668.

Banks, D. P. 1996. The genus Dockrillia, the pros and cons. Orchadian 12(2):61.

Banks, D. P. and S. C. Clemensha 1990. Dendrobium speciosum: a review of the species. Australian Orchid Rev. 55(6):4-14.

Banks, D. P. and S. C. Clemensha 1991. Dendrobium speciosum: a review of the species. Australian Orchid Rev. 56(1):16.

Banks, D. P. and D. I. Smedley 1997. Dendrobium lawesii, its history and notes on cultivation. Orchadian 12(4):152-155.

Bartareau, T. 1994. The reproductive ecology of Dendrobium toressae (Bailey) Dockr., a geographically restricted species in north-east Queensland. Orchadian 11:106-112.

Bartareau, T. 1995. Pollination and breeding systems in varieties of Dendrobium canaliculatum and their implications on the taxonomic status of the group. Orchadian 11:381-387.

Bartareau, T. 1995. Pollination limitation, costs of capsule production and the capsule-to-flower ration in Dendrobium monophyllum F. Muell. (Orchidaceae). Australian J. Ecol. 20:257-265.

Bartareau, T. 1999. Some observations on the pollination of Dockrillia nugentii in northeastern Queensland. Orchadian 12(11):497-501.

Bertoldo, J. and I. Leighton 1991. A new natural hybrid from North Queensland. Orchadian 10(3):85-86.

Betts, J. J. 1979. The rediscovery of Dendrobium convolutum Rolfe. Orchadian 6(6):134-135.

Blake, S. T. 1964. Dendrobium bigibbum, D. phalaenopsis and the Cooktown orchids. Proc. Roy. Soc. Qnsld. 74(4):29-44.

Bock, I. 1997. Dendrobium rigidum R. Br. 1810 [3]. Die Orchidee 48(3): Orchideenkartei Seite 855-856.

Braem, G. J. 1990. Dendrobium sophronitis, an endless confusion. Schlechteriana 3/90:98-101.

Cady, L. 1964. A new species of Dendrobium for NSW, Dendrobium suffusum. Orchadian 1:80-81.

Calder, D. M. and A. T. Slater 1985. The stigma of Dendrobium speciosum Sm. (Orchidaceae), a new stigma type comprising detached cells within a mucilaginous matrix. Ann. Bot. 55:297-307.

Chadim, V. A. 1982. Dendrobium crispilinguum Cribb, additional notes. Orchadian 7(3):59.

Cheng, S. J. and C. Z. Tang 1986. A new Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) found in China. Orchid Digest 50:95-97.

Cheng, S. J. and C. Z. Tang 1987. Dendrobiums new to China. Wild Orchid J. 4:82-84.

Chowdhury, S. 1988. A new species of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) from Assam, India. Kew Bull. 43(4):667-669.

Clements, M. A. and D. L. Jones 1990. Recently named Australian orchid taxa, 1: Dendrobium. Lindleyana 5(4):233-234.

Clements, M. A. and D. L. Jones 1996. A checklist of the genus Dockrillia. Orchadian 12(2):60.

Clements, M. A. and D. L. Jones 1997. A preliminary taxonomic review of Grastidium Blume and Eriopexis (Schltr.) Brieger (Orchidaceae). Lasianthera 1(2):52-128.

Clements, M. A. and D. L. Jones 1997. Cannaeorchis, a new genus of Dendrobiinae (Orchidaceae) for the taxon previously known as Dendrobium Sw. sect. Macrocladium Schltr. Lasianthera 1(3):132-147.

Clements, M. A., D. L. Jones and B. P. J. Molloy 1997. Winika, a new monotypic genus for the New Zealand orchid previously known as Dendrobium cunninghamii. Orchadian 12(5):214-219.

Clemesha, S. C. 1978. A review of Dendrobium bigibbum Lindl. Orchadian 6(2):27-33.

Clemesha, S. C. 1981. A review of Dendrobium speciosum Sm. Orchadian 6(11):246-###.

Clemesha, S. C. 1981. Dendrobium speciosum var. bancroftianum Reichb.f. Orchadian 6(12):271-272.

Clemesha, S. C. 1982. A natural hybrid in Dendrobium from North Queensland. Orchadian 7(4):91-92.

Clemesha, S. C. 1982. A new variety of Dendrobium speciosum Sm. from Central Queensland. Orchadian 7(5):103-106.

Clemesha, S. C. 1983. A note on Dendrobium bigibbum var. compactum. Australian Orchid Rev. 48(3):181.

Clemesha, S. C. 1986. Dendrobium speciosum, an update. Orchadian 8(8):173-177.

Comber, J. B. 1981. Dendrobium pedilonum in Java. Orchid Digest 45:72-76.

Comber, J. B. 1983. The section Calcarifera of the genus Dendrobium in Java. Orchid Digest 47:191-196.

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Cootes, J. 1998. Dendrobium section Formosae as represented in the Philippines. Orchids Austral. 10(4):34-38.

Cribb, P. J. 1980. Three new species of Dendrobium section Ceratobium from Papua New Guinea. Orchadian 6(8):174-178.

Cribb, P. J. 1981. A preliminary key to Dendrobium sect. Latouria. Orchadian 6(12):277-283.

Cribb, P. J. 1982. Dendrobium section Ceratobium in the Pacific Islands. Orchadian 7(5):119-120.

Cribb, P. J. 1982. The true affinities of Dendrobium bairdianum F. M. Bail. Orchadian 7(6):140.

Cribb, P. J. 1983. Dendrobium sect. Spatulata Lindl., the correct name for the “antelope” dendrobiums. Orchadian 7(8):189.

Cribb, P.J. 1983. A preliminary key to Dendrobium sect. Spatulata Lindl. (syn. sect. Ceratobium Lindl.) in New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago. Orchadian 7(8):189-192.

Cribb, P. J. 1984. A revision of Dendrobium section Latouria (Orchidaceae). Kew Bull. 38:229-306.

Cribb, P. J. 1985. Further thoughts on the identity of Dendrobium alexandrae. Orchadian 8(3):63.

Cribb, P. J. 1986. A revision of Dendrobium section Spatulata (Orchidaceae). Kew Bull. 41(3):615-692.

Cribb, P. J. 1986. Dendrobium eximium. Kew Mag. 3(2):55-57.

Cribb, P. J. 1990. Die Gattung Dendrobium in Neu-Guinea, Australien un den Pazifischen Inseln. Die Orchidee 41:169-176.

Cribb, P. J. 1990. 153. Dendrobium alexandrae, Orchidaceae. Kew Mag. 7(3):117-120.

Cribb, P. J. 1991. Zwei neue Orchideen aus dem Hochland von Papua-Neuguinea: Dendrobium magistratus und Dendrobium hamiferum. Die Orchidee 42(1):28-32.

Cribb, P. 1995. New species of Dendrobium and Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae) from the Pacific Islands. Kew Bull. 50(4):785-789.

Cribb, P. J. 1996. A new name for a Moluccan species of Dendrobium Sw. (Orchidaceae). Kew Bull. 51(2):380.

Cribb, P. J. 199##. A new name for a Moluccan species of Dendrobium Sw. (Orchidaceae). Kew Bull. ###:380.

Cribb, P. J. and D. F. Blaxell 1983. A reassessment of Dendrobium mirbelianum Gaud. and the true identity of D. wilkianum Rupp. Orchadian 7(8):175-176.

Cribb, P. J. and B. Lewis 1989. New orchids from Vanuatu in the southwest Pacific, part 3. Orchid Rev. 97:360-362.

Cribb, P. J., T. Reeve and P. Woods. 1985. The genus Dendrobium in New Guinea. Kew Mag. 2(3):291-308.

Cruttwell, N. E. G. 1989. Orchids of Mt. Gahavisuka, part. 2. Dendrobium. Orchadian 9(7):146-147, 160-162.

Dodd, J. 1977. The problem of naming orchids, a new name for Dendrobium ophioglossum Rchb.f. Orchadian 5(8):112-113.

Erfkamp, J. and O. Gruss 2000. Dendrobium sulawesiense, eine neue Art der Gattung Dendrobium aus Sulawesi. Die Orchidee 51(1):[057]-[060].

Fessel, H. 1999. Dendrobium tobaense J. J. Wood & J. B. Comber 1993. Die Orchidee 50(5): Orchideenkartei Seite 909-910.

Fessel, H., E. Lückel and J. Röth 1999. Dendrobium ionopus Rchb.f., eine vielfach übersehene Art von den Philippinen, oft unter anderen Namen kultiviert und verkault. Die Orchidee 50(4):432-102.

Fessel, H., E. Lückel and J. Röth 2000. Neubeschreibung der Art Dendrobium pseudoequitans mit einer Richtigstellung zum oft falsch verwendeten Artnamen Dendrobium equitans. Die Orchidee 51(1):[083]-[085].

Fessel, H. and H. Wolff 1990. Ein neues Dendrobium aus der Sektion Formosae von Thailand: Dendrobium lueckelianum. Die Orchidee 41(2):37-41.

Field, L. 1997. Some notes on Dockrillia cucumerina. Orchadian 12(4):151.

Finch, N. 1983. Dendrobium pugioniforme x D. striolatum, a natural hybrid reported. Orchadian 7(10):232-233.

Gopalan, R. and A. N. Henry 1989. A new subspecies of Dendrobium diodon Reichb.f. (Orchidaceae) from southern India. J. Econ. Tax. Bot. 12:487-488.

Gray, B. and D. L. Jones 1989. A new species of Dendrobium section Dendrocoryne (Orchidaceae) from North-eastern Queensland. Proc. Roy. Soc. Qnsld. 100:105-107.

Guen, Z. D. and L. V. Averyanov 1989. Novaya raznovidnost Dendrobium nobile var. alboluteum (Orchidaceae) s territorii Yuxhnogo Vietnama. Bot. Journ. (St. Petersburg) 74:1039-1040.

Harrison, M. 1998. The Dendrobium tetragonum complex. Orchadian 12(8):352-370.

Hashimoto, K. 1981. Chromosome count in Dendrobium, I. 87 species. Bull. Hiroshima Bot. Gard. 4:63-80.

Hashimoto, K. 1982. Chromosome count in Dendrobium, II. 30 species. Bull. Hiroshima Bot. Gard. 5:80-87.

Hashimoto, K. 1987. Karyomorphological studies of some 80 taxa of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae). Bull. Hiroshima Bot. Gard. 9:1-186.

Holttum, R. E. 1952. The subdivision of the genus Dendrobium. Orchid J. 1:123-125.

Howcroft, N. H. S. 1977. Dendrobium chloroleucum Schltr. Orchadian 5(10):146-147.

Howcroft, N. H. S. 1978. New Guinea’s Dendrobium rigidum R. Br. Orchadian 5(12):182-183.

Howcroft, N. H. S. 1981. Dendrobium wulaiense, a new species of section Ceratobium from West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea. Orchadian 6(12):284-285.

Howcroft, N. H. S. 1990. Contributions to the orchid flora of the Araucaria forests in New Guinea, 7. Dendrobium anosmum Lindl. Orchadian 9:263-264.

Howcroft, N. H. S. 1995. Dendrobium hodgkinsonii Rolfe -- rediscovered. Orchadian 11(9):413.

Howcroft, N. H. S. 1996. Dendrobium soriense: a new species of section Spathulata from Sori Island, Manus Province, Papua New Guinea. Orchadian 11(12):580-584.

Hu, S. Y. 1970. Dendrobium in Chinese medicine. Econ. Bot. 24(2):165-174.

Johansen, B. 1990. Incompatability in Dendrobium (Orchidaceae). Bot. Journ. Linn. Soc. 103:165-196.

Jones, D. L. 1974. The pollination of Dendrobium linguiforme. Austral. Orchid Rev. 39(2):70-72.

Jones, D. L. and M. A. Clements 1996. A new species of Dendrobium section Rhizobium (Orchidaceae) from Australia. Orchadian 12(1):5-6.

Jones, D. L. and B. Gray 1976. The pollination of Dendrobium lichenastrum (F. Muell.) Krzl. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 45(11):981-983.

Jones, D. L. and B. Gray 1977. The pollination of Dendrobium ruppianum A. D. Hawkes. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 46(1):54-57.

Jones, K. 1963. The chromosomes of Dendrobium. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 32(8):634-640.

Jones, K., K. Y. Lim and P. J. Cribb 1982. The chromosomes of orchids VII. Dendrobium. Kew Bull. 37:221-227.

Kamemoto, H. and R. Sagarik 1967. Chromosome numbers of Dendrobium species of Thailand. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 36(10):884-894.

Kamemoto, H., K. Shindo and K. Kosaki 1964. Chromosome homology in the Ceratobium, Phalaenanthe, and Latouria sections of the genus Dendrobium. Pacific Sci. 18(1):104-115.

Kerr, A. F. G. 1909. Notes on the pollination of certain species of Dendrobium. Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc. 12:47-53.

Kimura, K. and H. Migo 1936. New species of Dendrobium from the Chinese drug Shih-hu. J. Shanghai Sci. Inst. 3:121-124.

Kjellesson, G. and F. N. Rasmussen 1987. Does the pollination of Dendrobium unicum Seidenf. involve “pseudopollen”? Die Orchidee 38(4):183-187.

Kjellesson, G., F. N. Rasmussen and D. DuPuy 1985. Pollination of Dendrobium infundibulum, Cymbidium insigne (Orchidaceae) and Rhododendron lyi (Ericaceae) by Bombus eximus (Apidae) in Thailand: a possible case of floral mimicry. J. Trop. Ecol. 1:289-302.

Lavarack, P. S. 1980. The true identity of Dendrobium ophioglossum Rchb.f. Orchadian 6(9):212-213.

Lavarack, P. S. 1984. A further note on Dendrobium johannis Reichb.f. and D. semifuscum (Reichb.f.) Lavarack & Cribb. Orchadian 7(11):252-254.

Lavarack, B. 1995. Dendrobium lancifolium, an interesting and attractive species from Sulawesi. Australian Orchid Rev. 60(1):15-16.

Lavarack, P. S. and P. J. Cribb 1980. Dendrobium johannis and Dendrobium semifuscum in north Queensland. Orchadian 6(9):209-211.

Lavarack, P. S. and P. J. Cribb 1982. A new species of Dendrobium from Cape York Peninsula and New Guinea. Austrobaileya 1(5):497-501.

Lister, P. 1987. Observations on the pollination of Dendrobium linguiforme Sw. Orchadian 8(12):258-261.

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Manilal, K. S. and C. S. Kumar 1985. Dendrobium panduratum Lindl. (Orchidaceae), a new record for India. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 64:299-301.

Maunders, R. 1997. Die Entdeckung von Dendrobium mohlianum, ein Reisebericht. Journ. Orchideenfreund 4(2):64-71.

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Mewburn, J. 1995. Bodgie Bigibbums. Orchadian 11(9):410-411.

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Reeve, T. M. 1980. Two new species of Dendrobium section Latouria from the mountains of Papua New Guinea. Orchadian 6(10):223-226.

Reeve, T. M. 1982. Some new species of Dendrobium section Pedilonum from the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Orchadian 7(6):130-137.

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