(pronounced: paff-ee-oh-PED-eh-lum)


Cypripedioideae. Cribb divides the genus into two subgenera. Subgenus Paphiopedilum, with petals more than twice as long as broad, comprises five sections with 51 species. Subgenus Brachypetalum (synonym: subg. Concoloria (Kraenzlin) Albert and Pettersen)

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Acaulous terrestrials, lithophytes, and epiphytes forming fan-shaped growths. Leaves alternate, distichous, plain or marbled/mottled. Inflorescences erect, usually scapose, solitary flowers or racemes, simultaneously or sequentially flowered. Flowers variable in color. Dorsal sepal erect, free, the lateral sepals fused into a compound structure (synsepal). Petals free, frequently with warts and(or) trichomes. Lip pouch-shaped. Column short, terminating in a typically shield-shaped staminode; fertile anthers 2, the pollen agglutinated.


A genus of 60 species recorded from South India to the Philippines and New Guinea.

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Albert, V. A. 1994. Cladistic relationships of the slipper orchids (Cypripedioideae: Orchidaceae) from congruent morphological and molecular data. Lindleyana 9:115-132.

Albert, V. A. and B. Pettersson 1994. Expansion of genus Paphiopedilum Pfitzer to include all conduplicate-leaved slipper orchids (Cypripedioideae: Orchidaceae). Lindleyana 9(2):133-139.

Asher, J. H. 1980-1981. A checklist for the genus Paphiopedilum for 1980-1981. Orchid Digest 44:175-184, 213-228, 45:15-17, 57-62.

Asher, J. H. 1983. Paphiopedilum adductum Asher, new species from the Philippines, with notes about Paphiopedilum rothschildianum (Rchb.f.) Pfitz. and Paphiopedilum elliotianum (O’Brien) Fowlie. Orchid Digest 47:213-236.

Asher, J. H. 1985. A contribution to the study of Paphiopedilum, subgenus Cochlopetalum, with an enumeration of the species within the subgenus, and a discussion of some modern techniques to evaluate and define species concepts. Orchid Digest 49:15-30.

Asher, J. H. 1986. Notes on the genus Paphiopedilum, II. Paphiopedilum supardii Braem & Loeb, spec. nov. -- a new Indonesian species from Borneo. Orchid Digest 50:209-216.

Asher, J. H. 1986. Research on the genus Paphiopedilum (Anggrek Kantong) in West Sumatra. Malayan Orchid Rev. 20:58-72.

Asher, J. H. and J. H. Beaman 1988. Paphiopedilum richardianum Asher & Beaman: a discussion about its relationship to other members of the section Pardalopetalum. Orchid Digest 52:119-126.

Assmann, S. M.and E. Zeiger 1985. Stomatal responses to CO2 in Paphiopedilum and Phragmipedium. Pl. Physiol. (Lancaster) 77:461-464.

Atwood, J. T. 1985. Pollination of Paphiopedilum rothschildianum: brood-site deception. Nat. Geogr. Res. 1:247-254.

Atwood, J. T. 1989. A new natural hybrid Paphiopedilum from the Philippines. Orchid Review 97(1148):182-185.

Averyanov, L. V. 1996. Paphiopedilum helenae, new slipper orchid (Orchidaceae) from the North Vietnam. Bot. Journ. (St.-Petersburg) 81(9):105-110.

Averyanov, L. V. 1998. Paphiopedilum hiepii. Orchids 67(3):260-263.

Averyanov, L. V., N. T. Hiep, P. K. Loc, and D. D. Huyen 1996. Endangered Vietnamese Paphiopedilums. Part 1. Paphiopedilum helenae. Orchids 65(10):1062-1068.

Averyanov, L. V., N. T. Hiep, P. K. Loc, and D. D. Huyen 1996. Endangered Vietnamese Paphiopedilums. Part 2. Paphiopedilum delenatii. Orchids 65(12):1302-1308.

Averyanov, L. V., N. T. Hiep, P. K. Loc, and D. D. Huyen. 1997. Endangered Vietnamese Paphiopedilums. Part 3. Paphiopedilum malipoense. Orchids 66(2):150--155.

Averyanov, L. V., N. T. Hiep, P. K. Loc, and D. D. Huyen. 1997. Endangered Vietnamese Paphiopedilums. Part 4. Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum var. esquirolei and var. chiwuanum. Orchids 66(4):378--383.

Azadehel, H. and P. Mattes 1988. The rediscovery of Paphiopedilum papuanum and Paphiopedilum zieckianum. Orchid Digest 52:33-36.

Bänziger, H. 1996. The mesmerizing wart: the pollination strategy of epiphytic lady’s slipper Paphiopedilum villosum (Lindl.) Stein (Orchidaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 121:59-90.

Billensteiner, H. 1998. Paphiopedilum violascens Schlechter. J. Orchideenfr. 5(3):179-180.

Birk, L. A. 1981. Paphiopedilum fowliei Birk, sp. nov. Orchid Digest 45:63-65.

Braem, G. J. 1987. Paphiopedilum sangii, eine neue frauenschuhart der sektion Blepharopetalum (untergattung Sigmatopetalum). Die Orchidee 38:169-172.

Braem, G. J. 1988. Zwei neue Arten der Gattung Paphiopedilum. Schlechteriana 1(2):15-22.

Braem, G. J. 1988. Paphiopedilum. Brucke-Verlag Kurt Schmersow, Hidesheim.

Braem, G. J. 1989. Paphiopedilum mohrianum, a new slipper orchid from Flores Island, Indonesia. Orchid Digest 53(2):73-75.

Braem, G. J. 1990. Paphiopedilum sangii. Schlechteriana 4/90:143-148.

Braem, G. J. 1991. Paphiopedilum markianum Fowl., another opinion. Orchid Digest 55(2):58.

Braem, G. J. 1991. On the priority of Paphiopedilum markianum. Orchid Digest 55(2):59-61.

Braem, G. J. 1991. Paphiopedilum henryanum var. christae. Schlechteriana 4/91:157-162.

Braem, G. J. 1993. Paphiopedilum fowliei. Schlechteriana 4(1-2): 52-53.

Braem, G. J. 1998. Nouveaux Paphiopedilum albinos. Orchid. Cult. & Protect. 36(4):35-38.

Braem, G. J. 1999. Taxonomie infragénérique du genre Paphiopedilum. Orchid. Cult. & Protect. 37(1):7-20.

Braem, G. J. 1999. Un nouveau taxon pour le genre Paphiopedilum Pfitzer, Paphiopedilum cerveranum Braem. Orchid. Cult. & Protect. 38(2):28-30.

Braem, G. J. 2001. Etude critique des additions et des changements intervenus récemment dans le genre Paphiopedilum. Richardiana 1(1):4-19.

Braem, G. J., M. L. Baker and C. O. Baker 1997. Paphiopedilum gigantifolium, a new slipper orchid species from the island of Sulawesi (Indonesia). Orchidées, Culture and Protection 30(3):5-12.

Braem, G. J. and H. Mohr 1988. Two new species of the genus Paphiopedilum. Schlechteriana 1(2):15-22.

Cavestro, W. 1999. Un nouveau Paphiopedilum des Philippines: P. parnatanum W. Cavestro. Orchid. Cult. & Protect. 38(2):30.

Cavestro, W. and G. Chiron 1999. Un nouveau Paphiopedilum du Vietnam, P. mirabile W. Cavestro & G. Chiron. Orchid. Cult. & Protect. 38(2):31-34.

Cervera, F. 2001. Visiting Paphiopedilum sanderianum in the wild. Orchid Digest 65(2):64-67.

Chen, S. and F. Liu 1981. Notes on some species of Paphiopedilum from Yunnan. Acta Bot. Yunnan. 4:163-167.

Clark, J. 1998. Orchid portrait: Paphiopedilum rothschildianum. Orchids 67(1):28-37.

Clements, M. A. and D. L. Jones 1996. Paphiopedilum striatum (Orchidaceae), a new species from Papua New Guinea. Lasianthera 1(1):2-7.

Cribb, P. 1986. The slipper orchids of New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. Kew Mag. 3(4):159-166.

Cribb, P. 1987. The genus Paphiopedilum. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Cribb, P. 1999. Wild Paphiopedilums. Orchids 68(4):340-349.

Cribb, P. and L. Averyanov 2000. Paphiopedilum henryanum in North Vietnam. Orchid Rev. 108(1232):124-127.

Cribb, P. and Y.-B. Luo 1998. Paphiopedilum malipoense in China. Orchid Rev. 106(1224):343-345.

Cribb, P. J., Y.-B. Luo, and G. Siu 1999. Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum var. esquirolei in Southern China. Orchid Rev. 107(1228):216-219.

Cribb, P. J., Y.-B. Luo, and G. Siu 1999. Paphiopedilum dianthum in South-West China. Orchid Rev. 107(1229):289-291.

Cribb, P. J., Y.-B. Luo, and G. Siu 1999. Paphiopedilum concolor (Lindl.) Pfitzer und bellatulum (Rchb.f.) Stein. Die Orchidee 50(4):46-50.

Cribb, P. J., Y.-B. Luo, N. McGough and L.-P. Siu 1999. Paphiopedilum micranthum in south-west China. Orchid Rev. 107(1227):149-152.

Fessel, H. H., E. Lückel and J. Roth 2000. Paphiopedilum malipoense f. tonnianum, eine neue Variante der Art. Die Orchidee 51(5):[032]-[033].

Fowlie, J. A. 1971. Paphiopedilum chamberlainianum subsp. liemiana Fowl.: a new subspecies of Paphiopedilum chamberlainianum from Sumatra. Orchid Digest 35:53-55.

Fowlie, J. A. 1978. Paphiopedilum amabile Hallier rediscovered recently in western Borneo. Orchid Digest 42:28-29.

Fowlie, J. A. 1979. Malaya revisited, XIV. Intermediate species resolution among the Phacopetalum ladyslipper orchids from below the Isthmus of Kra to Cambodia. Orchid Digest 43:219-224.

Fowlie, J. A. 1981. A new Paphiopedilum species from Mindoro Island in the Philippines, Paphiopedilum urbanianum Fowl. Orchid Digest 45:131-134.

Fowlie, J. A. 1985. A new species of Spathopetalum from central Sumatra, Paphiopedilum tortipetalum Fowl. Orchid Digest 49:152-156.

Fowlie, J. A. 1990. A new species of section Pardalopetalum, epiphytic on trees in Yunnan, Paphiopedilum markianum Fowl., sp. nov. Orchid Digest 54(3):125-127.

Fowlie, J. A. 1991. China: awash in a bitter sea, part VI. Paphiopedilum malipoense in a distinct limestone bluff habitat. Orchid Digest 55(1):4-15.

Fowlie, J. A. 1991. Some additional information on Paphiopedilum braemii, an exciting new slipper orchid. Orchid Digest 55(3):115-117.

Fowlie, J. A. 1991. An attempt to re-clarify P. godefroyae from the Birdsnest Islands of Chumpon, Thailand. Orchid Digest 55(4):164-166.

Fowlie, J. A. 1991. A further attempt to clarify the Mastigopetalum Section species of Paphiopedilum, as they exist in New Guinea and its adjacent islands. Orchid Digest 55(4):182-188.

Fuchs, F. and H. Reisinger 1995. Paphiopedilum herrmannii Fuchs et Reisinger, eine neue Frauenschuhart aus Nord-Vietnam. Linzer Biol. Beitr. 27(2):1213-1215.

Golamco, A. S., Jr. 1999. Paphiopedilum anitum, Golamco, sp. nov. Waling-Waling Rev. 9-14.

Grote, S. 2000. In search of Paphiopedilum barbatum. Orchid Rev. 108(1235):291-294.

Gruss, O. 1990. Paphiopedilum tigrinum Koopowitz & Hasegawa -- P. markianum Fowlie.

zwei namen für eine neue Paphiopedilum-art. Die Orchidee 41:176-178.

Gruss, O. 1990. Paphiopedilum markianum -- P. tigrinum.

ein Paphiopedilum mit zwei namen. Die Orchidee 41:208-212.

Gruss, O. 1991. Geschichte der Frauenschuhorchideen, ihre nomenklatur und taxonomie. Die Orchidee 42:1-6, 123-127.

Gruss, O. 1994. Paphiopedilum gratrixianum (Masters) Guillaumin 1924. Die Orchidee 45(6): Orchideenkartei Seite 785-786.

Gruss, O. 1996. Paphiopedilum exul (Ridley) Kerchove 1894. Die Orchidee 48(4): Orchideenkartei Seite 859-860.

Gruss, O. 1997. Paphiopedilum lowii (Lindley) Stein 1892. Die Orchidee 48(1): Orchideenkartei Seite 847-848.

Gruss, O. 1997. Paphiopedilum bellatulum (Reichenbach f.) Stein 1892. Die Orchidee 48(2): Orchideenkartei Seite 851-852.

Gruss, O. 1997. Paphiopedilum haynaldianum (Reichenbach f.) Stein 1892. Die Orchidee 48(2): Orchideenkartei Seite 853-854.

Gruss, O. 1997. Paphiopedilum mastersianum (Reichenbach f.) Stein 1892. Die Orchidee 48(5): Orchideenkartei Seite 865-866.

Gruss, O. 1997. Paphiopedilum armeniacum var. markii Gruss. Die Orchidee 48(5):215-216.

Gruss, O. 1997. Paphiopedilum ? fanaticum Koopowitz et Hasegawa 1992. Die Orchidee 48(6): Orchideenkartei Seite 867-868.

Gruss, O. 1998. Paphiopedilum ? greyi Corning 1888. Die Orchidee 49(2): Orchideenkartei Seite 875-876.

Gruss, O. 1999. Paphiopedilum sukhakulii f. aureum. Die Orchidee, Suppl. 6:15-16.

Gruss, O. and H. Perner 2000. Paphiopedilum vietnamense Gruss et Perner [2]. Die Orchidee 51(4): Orchideenkartei Seite 927-930.

Gruss, O. and J. Röth 1995. Paphiopedilum potentianum, a new Paphiopedilum of the Section Barbata. Caesiana 5:39-42.

Gruss, O. and J. Röth 1996. Paphiopedilum hennisianum (Schoser ex M. W. Wood) Fowl. var. christiansenii Gruss et Roeth, eine neue Varietät von Paphiopedilum hennisianum. Die Orchidee 47(5):234-236.

Gruss, O. and J. Röth 1997. Eine neue Varietät von Paphiopedilum lowii (Lindl.) Stein. Die Orchidee 48(2):71-72.

Gruss, O. and J. Röth 1999. Paphiopedilum helenae f. aureum, eine neue Farbvariante. Die Orchidee 50(1):2-3.

Gruss, O. and J. Röth 1999. Paphiopedilum usitanum, ein neuer Grauenshuh von den Philippinen. Die Orchidee 50(1):4-6.

Gruss, O. and J. Röth 1999. Paphiopedilum bougainvilleanum var. saskianum, eine neue und interessante Sippe von der Salomoninsel Malaita. Die Orchidee 50(5):[069]-[071].

Gruss, O. and L. Röllke 2000. Neueinstufung einer fast schon vergessenen Farbform. Die Orchidee 51(4):[024].

Hua, Hu Song 1998. Eine neue Naturhybride der Gattung Paphiopedilum aus China, Paphiopedilum x grussianum. Die Orchidee 49(4):180.

Hua, H.-S. 1999. Paphiopedilum barbigerum var. aureum. Orchids 68(3):242-243.

Hua, H.-S. 1999. Paphipedilum chaoi, eine neue Art der Gattung aus China. Die Orchidee 50(5):[031].

Johnson, S. R. 1992. Photosynthetic characteristics of Paphiopedilum malipoense and P. micranthum (section Parvisepalum). Lindleyana 7:181-184.

Karasawa, K. 1979. Karyomorphological studies in Paphiopedilum, Orchidaceae. Bull. Hiroshima Bot. Gard. 2:1-149.

Karasawa, K. 1982. Karyomorphological studies on four species of Paphiopedilum. Bull. Hiroshima Bot. Gard. 5:70-79.

Karasawa, K. 1982. The genus Paphiopedilum. Twin Oaks Books, East Lansing.

Karasawa, K. 1986. Karyomorphological studies on nine taxa of Paphiopedilum. Bull. Hiroshima Bot. Gard. 8:23-42.

Karasawa, K. and M. Aoyama 1981. Morphological studies on leaf of Paphiopedilum. Bull. Hiroshima Bot. Gard. 4:81-87.

Karasawa, K. and K. Saito 1982. A revision of the genus Paphiopedilum (Orchidaceae). Bull. Hiroshima Bot. Gard. 5:1-69.

Karasawa, K. and R. Tanaka 1980. C-banding study of the centric fission in the chromosomes of Paphiopedilum. Cytologia 45:97-102.

Kataki, S. K. 1963. Notes on systematics, cytology and culture of Paphiopedilum venustum (Lindl.) Pfitz. Bull. Bot. Soc. India 5(1):37-38.

Koopowitz, H. 1991. Paphiopedilum sriwaniae: a new species of Paphiopedilum from the Philippines. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 60(8):781-784.

Koopowitz, H. 1999. Paphiopedilum ooii, a remarkable new slipper orchid from Malaysia. Orchid Digest 63(2):106-107.

Koopowitz, H. 1999. Paphiopedilum ooii, a remarkable new slipper orchid from Malaysia. Orchids Austral. 11(4):8-10.

Koopowitz, H. 2000. Additional comments on Paphiopedilum ooii. Orchid Digest 64(2):63-64.

Koopowitz, H. 2000. A revised checklist of the genus Paphiopedilum. Orchid Digest 64(4):155-179.

Koopowitz, H. and P. Cribb 1986. Paphiopedilum emersonii, a remarkable new slipper orchid from China. Orchid Advocate 12(3):84-86.

Koopowitz, H. and N. Hasegawa 1990. Paphiopedilum tigrinum: a new species. Orchid Advocate 16(3):76-79.

Koopowitz, H. and N. Hasegawa 1990. Paphiopedilum tigrinum, a new slipper orchid species from China. Orchid Review 98(1165):346-349.

Koopowitz, H. and N. Hasegawa 1992. Paphiopedilum ? fanaticum. Orchid Advocate 18:48-51.

Koopowitz, H. and N. Hasegawa 2000. Paphiopedilum viniferum. Orchid Digest 64(4):148-151.

Kramer, R. D. 1992. Paphiopedilum sangii, the platypus of the Paph. world. Australian Orchid Rev. 57(3):9.

Lückel, E. 1987. Ein neuer frauenschuh, Paphiopedilum dollii. Die Orchidee 38:266-268.

Mattes, P. 1987. Paphiopedilum zieckianum Schos. oder P. papuanum Ridl.? Die Orchidee 38:90-93.

Parnata, A. S. 1997. Paphiopedilum ayubii. Australian Orchid Rev. 1997:9-10.

Pe, F. T. 1981. A rediscovery of Paphiopedilum wardii Summerhayes. Orchid Digest 45:98-103.

Perner, H. 1999. The bitter sea turns sweet: Paph. armeniacum in its natural habitat. Orchid Digest 63(1):27-30.

Perner, H. and O. Gruss 1999. Paphiopedilum hangianum, eine neue Art der Gattung aus Vietnam. Die Orchidee, Suppl. 6:3-7.

Perner, H. and R. Hermann 2000. Paphiopedilum coccineum Perner & Hermann, ein neuer Frauenschuh aus Vietnam. Die Orchidee 51(5):[094]-[096].

Plested, I. and J. Plested 1991. The habitat and natural growing conditions of Paphiopedilum barbatum. Orchid Rev. 99(1174):262-265.

Röth, J. and O. Gruss 1996. Paphiopedilum ? mattesii, ein Naturbastard aus Westmalaysia. Die Orchidee 47(3):129-132.

Röth, J. and O. Gruss 1997. Paphiopedilum javanicum (Reinw. ex Lindl.) Pfitz. var. nymphenburgianum Roeth et Gruss. Die Orchidee 48(1):8-10.

Schoser, G. 1967. Paphiopedilum zieckianum spec. nov. Schoser. Die Orchidee 18(1):1-7.

Schoser, G. and K. Senghas 1965. Paphiopedilum sukhakulii ein unerwarteter fund aus Thailand. Die Orchidee 16:109-110.

Senghas, K. and R. Schettler 1999. Paphiopedilum hilmari, eine ungewöhnliche Entdeckung aus Vietnam. J. Orchideenf. 6(1):4.

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Stiles, R. A. and J. A. Fowlie 1971. A clarification of Paphiopedilum violascens Schltr. including description of a new, related species from Bougainville, Paphiopedilum bougainvilleanum Fowl. Orchid Digest 35:119-122.

Taylor, P. 2000. Selected species: Paphiopedilum mastersianum. Orchids Austral. 12(1):8-9.

Tsi, Z.-H., Y.-B. Luo, P. J. Cribb, N. McGough, G. Siu and L. Chau 1999. A preliminary report on the population size, ecology, and conservation status of some Paphiopedilum species (Orchidaceae) in southwest China. Lindleyana 14(1):12-23.

Waters, V. H. and C. C. Waters 1973. A survey of the slipper orchids. Carolina Press, Shelby, NC.

Williams, L. O. 1942. A new Paphiopedilum from netherlands New Guinea. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 10(12):373-375.

Zeiger, E., C. Grivet, S. M. Assmann, G. F. Deitzer and M. W. Hannegan 1985. Stomatal limitation to carbon gain in Paphiopedilum sp. (Orchidaceae) and its reversal by blue light. Pl. Physiol. (Lancaster) 77:456-460.