(pronounced: frag-meh-PEE-dee-um)



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Caespitose or rhizomatose terrestrials and lithophytes, rarely epiphytes, lacking pseudobulbs, producing fan-shaped growths. Leaves alternate, distichous, equitant at the conduplicate bases, linear-lanceolate to lorate, glabrous. Inflorescences erect scapose racemes and panicles, the floral bracts frequently large, conspicuous. Flowers borne simultaneously or sequentially one-flowered. Sepals and petals usually dissimilar, the lateral sepals fused for their length in a synsepal. Lip pouch-like (petal-like in P. lindenii). Column terminated by a shield-shaped staminode (absent in P. exstaminodium Castaño, Hagsater and Aguirre), laterally with two fertile anthers; pollen in glutinous masses.


A genus of 15 species ranging from southern Mexico to Bolivia and Trinidad. One rather unusual species from Mexico, P. xerophyticum Soto Arenas, Salazar and Hagsater, is placed in the monotypic genus Mexipedium Albert and Chase by some authors. Alternativ

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Albert, V. A. 1994. Cladistic relationships of the slipper orchids (Cypripedioideae: Orchidaceae) from congruent morphological and molecular data. Lindleyana 9:115-132.

Albert, V. A. and M. W. Chase 1992. Mexipedium: a new genus of slipper orchid (Cypripedioideae: Orchidaceae). Lindleyana 7:172-176.

Albert, V. A. and B. Pettersson 1994. Expansion of genus Paphiopedilum Pfitzer to include all conduplicate-leaved slipper orchids (Cypripedioideae: Orchidaceae). Lindleyana 9(2):133-139.

Assmann, S. M.and E. Zeiger 1985. Stomatal responses to CO2 in Paphiopedilum and Phragmipedium. Pl. Physiol. (Lancaster) 77:461-464.

Braem, G. J. 1990. Phragmipedium besseae. 2/90:50-56.

Braem, G. J. 1992. Phragmipedium schlimii with some considerations regarding the genus. Schlechteriana 1/92:32-42.

Castãno, G. R., E. Hagsater and E. L. Aquirre 1984. Phragmipedium exstaminodium: una nueva especie de Chiapas, Mexico. Orquidea (Mex.) 9(2):191-197.

Dodson, C. H. and O. Gruss 1996. Phragmipedium dalessandroi Dodson et Gruss spec. nov., eine neue Art der Gattung Phragmipedium aus Ekuador. Die Orchidee 47(4):216-220.

Dodson, C. H. and J. Kuhn 1981. Notes from the O.I.C., Phragmipedium besseae, a new species from Peru. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 50(11):1308-1310.

Dressler, R. L. and N. H. Williams 1975. (408) Proposal for the conservation of the generic name 1393b Phragmipedium Rolfe (1896) (Orchidaceae) against Uropedium Lindley (1846). Taxon 24:691-700.

Dunsterville, G. C. K. 1970. Phragmipedium lindleyanum (Schomb.) Rolfe. Orchid Digest 34:110-111.

Dunsterville, G. C. K. 1970. Phragmipedium klotzscheanum (Rchb.f. ex Schomb.) Rolfe. Orchid Digest 34:188-190.

Fessel, H. H., E. Lückel, and J. Röth 2000. Phragmipedium ?grande, ein neuer Naturbastard aus Ekuador. Die Orchidee 51(2):[032]-[033].

Fowlie, J. A. 1973. With Ghillany in Brazil, part V. In search of Phragmipedium vittatum in the peat bogs of the planalto. Orchid Digest 37(3):110-114.

Fowlie, J. A. 1986. In Brazil: part XXXIII. Phragmipedium sargentianum atop granite chapadas in Pernambuco. Orchid Digest 50:104-109.

Garay, L. A. 1979. The genus Phragmipedium.

a revision. Orchid Digest 43:133-148.

Ghillany, B. A. 1972. In search of the elusive Phragmipedium sargentianum in Brazil. Orchid Digest 36:111-115.

Gorinsky, P. D. 1972. Habitat notes from a collection in Guyana of Phragmipedium klotzscheanum. Orchid Digest 36:151-154.

Gruss, O. 1991. Phragmipedium hirtzii Dodson. Die Orchidee 42(2):91-94.

Gruss, O. 1996. Die Gattung Phragmipedium (Teil 5). Die Orchidee 47(1):13-24.

Gruss, O. 1998. Primärhybriden -- reizvolle Ergänzung der Natur -- Teil 16/2: Primärhybriden des Phragmipedium longifolium und der verwandten Arten. Die Orchidee 49(2):57-66.

Gruss, O. 2000. Phragmipedium chapadense Campacci et Takase. Die Orchidee 51(5):[097]-[099].

Gruss, O. 2000. A new species of the genus Phragmipedium from South America: Phragmipedium tetzlaffianum. Caesiana 15:33-40.

Gruss, O. and J. Röth 1998. Phragmipedium caricinum (Lindley et Paxton) Rolfe 1896. Die Orchidee 49(2): Orchideenkartei Seite 877-878.

Hagsater, E. 1991. Phragmipedium exstaminodium Castaño, Hagsater & Aguirre, 1984. Erst vor wenigen Jahren entdeckt-heute fast vom Aussterben bedroht. Die Orchidee 42(9):127-134.

Hegedus, L. S. and F. R. Stermitz 1986. Further facts on Phragmipedium besseae. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 55(4):367-369.

Hersh, H. 1996. Phragmipediums on the windowsill. Orchids 65(6):622-627.

Kalina, T. F. 1998. Die Pflege der Arten der Gattung Phragmipedium. Die Orchidee 49(6):284-296.

Kalina, T. F. 1999. The elusive Phragmipedium hirtzii. Orchid Rev. 107(1227):165-166.

Karasawa, K. 1980. Karyomorphological studies in Phragmipedium, Orchidaceae. Bull. Hiroshima Bot. Gard. 3:1-49.

Ledoux, M. N. 1996. The diminutive Phragmipedium xerophyticum. Orchid Digest 60(3):122-128.

McCook, L. M. 1989. The genus Phragmipedium. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 58:1095-1100.

McCook, L. M. 1990. The genus Phragmipedium. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 59:153-158.

Menezes, L. C. 1989. Phragmipedium vittatum (Vell.) Rolfe, an orchid in the process of extinction. Orchid Digest 53(2):76-78.

Menezes, L. C. 1991. Phragmipedium vittatum (Vell.) Rolfe, an orchid threatened with extinction. Schlechteriana 3/91:91-96.

Moon, A. and P. Cribb 1997. Thoughts on the identity of the red phragmipediums. Orchid Rev. 105(1216):227-230.

Rolfe, R. A. 1896. The Cypripedium group. Orchid Rev. 4:327-334, 363-367.

Röth, J. and O. Gruss 1997. Phragmipedium hartwegii (Rchb.f.) Pfister var. baderi Roeth et Gruss, eine neue Varietät des Phragmipedium hartwegii. Die Orchidee 48(3):94-96.

Röth, J. and O. Gruss 1998. Phragmipedium richteri Roeth et Gruss 1994. Die Orchidee 49(1): Orchideenkartei Seite 871-872.

Simpson, P. D. 1988. Observations on Phragmipedium species near Tingo Maria, Peru. Orchid Digest 52:81-84.

Soto A., M., G. A. Salazar and E. Hagsater 1990. Phragmipedium xerophyticum, una nueva especie del sureste de Mexico. Orquidea (Mex.) 12:1-10.

Stermitz, F. R., N. H. Fink and L. S. Hegedus 1981. A comparison of alkaloid content in some Phragmipedium species. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 50(11):1346-1352.

Taylor, P. 2000. Selected species, Phragmipedium besseae. Orchids Austral. 12(2):34-35.

Vasquez Ch., R. and P. L. Ibisch 1998. Ecologia y estado de conservacion del genero Phragmipedium (Orchidaceae) y el registro de Phragmipedium boissierianum (Rchb.f.) Rolfe como especie nueva para Bolivia. Rev. Soc. Boliviana Bot. 2(1):60-69.