(pronounced: stan-HOHP-ee-ah)


Maxillarieae subtribe Stanhopeinae

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Large caespitose epiphytes. Roots thick, white. Pseudobulbs ovoid, usually deeply ridged, subtended by persistent dry bract remnants. Leaves solitary, erect, elliptic, rigid, parchment-like, petiolate. Inflorescences basal, pendent, few-flowered, usually chandelier-like racemes, the peduncle bracts and floral bracts prominent, papery, brown, oftne inflated. Flowers showy, typically extremely fragrant, lasting for only a few days. Sepals and petals free, spreading, usually +/- reflexed. Lip fleshy, rigid, complex, divided into a hypochile, mesochile and epichile, the hypochile usually saccate, the mesochile usually with a pair of conspicuous incurved horns subequal in length to the epichile. Column elongate, subequal to the lip, straight or arching, with wide membranaceous wings, often with apical teeth; pollinia 2, each with a longitudinal groove, on a common short stipe and large viscidium.


A genus of about 55 species found from Mexico to Bolivia and Trinidad.

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Bellone, R. 1998. Les Stanhopea du Mexique. Orchid. Cult. & Protect. 34(2):15-18.

Braga, P. I. S. 1976. Estudos da flora orquidologica do Estado do Amazonas. I. Decricao e observacao da biologia floral de Stanhopea candida Barb. Rodr. Acta Amazonica 6:433-438.

Dodson, C. H. 1975. Clarification of some nomenclature in the genus Stanhopea (Orchidaceae). Selbyana 1:46-55.

Dodson, C. H. and G. P. Frymire 1962. Preliminary studies in the genus Stanhopea (Orchidaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 48:137-172.

Dressler, R. L. 1989. Stanhopea avicula, a new twin-flowered species from eastern Panama. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 58:885-886.

Haager, J. R. and J. Jenik 1984. Stanhopea tadeasi: a new orchid from the Ecuadorian Andes. Orchid Digest 48:182-183.

Jenny, R. 1980. Stanhopea tigrina Bateman ex Lindley 1838. Die Orchidee 31(2): Orchideenkartei 163-164.

Jenny, R. 1981. Stanhopea tricornis Lindley 1849. Die Orchidee 32(2): Orchideenkartei 205-206.

Jenny, R. 1981. Stanhopea cirrhata Lindley 1850. Die Orchidee 32(3): Orchideenkartei 217-218.

Jenny, R. 1984. Stanhopea jenischiana Kramer ex Rchb.f. 1852. Die Orchidee 35(2): Orchideenkartei 335-336.

Jenny, R. 1986. Stanhopea annulata Mansfeld 1938. Die Orchidee 37(2): Orchideenkartei 441-442.

Jenny, R. 1986. Stanhopea florida Rchb.f. 1879. Die Orchidee 37(2): Orchideenkartei 443-444.

Jenny, R. 1986. Stanhopea impressa Rolfe 1898. Die Orchidee 37(3): Orchideenkartei 449-450.

Jenny, R. 1986. Stanhopea connata Klotzsch 1854. Die Orchidee 37(3): Orchideenkartei 37(3):451-452.

Jenny, R. 1987. Die Gongorinae, 7. Stanhopea, Teil I: S. jenischiana, reichenbachiana, tricornis, platyceras, candida, grandiflora. Die Orchidee 38:231-239.

Jenny, R. 1988. Naturhybriden mit Stanhopea ecornuta: S. x lewisae, S. x horichiana, S. x fowlieana. Die Orchidee 39:6-9.

Jenny, R. 1988. Die Gongorinae, 7. Stanhopea, Teil II: S. hernandezii und martiana. Die Orchidee 39:62-67.

Jenny, R. 1988. Die Gongorinae, 7. Stanhopea, Teil III: S. saccata und radiosa. Die Orchidee 39:91-94.

Jenny, R. 1988. Die Gongorinae, 7. Stanhopea, Teil IV: S. deltoidea, xytriophora und intermedia. Die Orchidee 39:224-229.

Jenny, R. 1989. Die Gongorinae, 7. Stanhopea, Teil V: Stanhopea pulla, annulata, cirrhata, Stanhopea connata (Stanhopea tadeasi), Stanhopea ecornuta. Die Orchidee 40:22-29.

Jenny, R. 1989. Die Gongorinae, 7. Stanhopea, Teil VI: Stanhopea embreei, Stanhopea impressa, Stanhopea frymirei, Stanhopea inodora und Stanhopea lietzei. Die Orchidee 40:158-163.

Jenny, R. 1990. Die Gongorinae, 7. Stanhopea, Teil VII: Stanhopea insignis Frost ex Hooker. Die Orchidee 41:54-59.

Jenny, R. 1991. Die Gongorinae, 7. Stanhopea, Teil VIII: Stanhopea costaricensis Rchb.f., S. gibbosa Rchb.f., S. panamensis Williams & Whitten. Die Orchidee 42:151-157.

Jenny, R. 1991. Die Gongorinae, 7. Stanhopea, Teil IX: Stanhopea anfracta Rolfe, Stanhopea pozoi Dodson & Bennett, Stanhopea shuttleworthii Rchb.f. Die Orchidee 42(6):295-299.

Jenny, R. 1992 Die Gongorinae, 7. Stanhopea, Teil X: Stanhopea graveolens Lindley, Stanhopea warszewicziana Klotzsch, Stanhopea wardii Loddiges ex Lindley. Die Orchidee 43(3):113-119.

Jenny, R. 1993. Die Gongorinae, 7. Stanhopea, Teil XI: Stanhopea tigrina Bateman ex Lindley, Stanhopea tigrina var. nigroviolacea Morren. Die Orchidee 44(2):65-70.

Jenny, R. 1993. Die Gongorinae, 7. Stanhopea, Teil XII: Stanhopea florida Rchb.f., Stanhopea haselowiana Rchb.f., Stanhopea nigripes Rolfe. Die Orchidee 44(3):137-142.

Jenny, R. 1993. Stanhopea in Costa Rica & Panama. Schlechteriana 4(1-2):66-92.

Jenny, R. 1993. Preliminary checklist of the genus Stanhopea. Schlechteriana 4(3):128-140.

Jenny, R. 1993. Stanhopeas from Brazil. Schlechteriana 4(4):161-173.

Jenny, R. 1994. Le Gongorinae, 7. Stanhopea, Parte XIII: S. avicula Dressler, S. guttulata Lindley e S. stevensonii Mejia & Escobar ex Jenny spec nov. Caesiana 3:9-22.

Jenny, R. 1997. Stanhopea platyceras Rchb.f. und ihr albino. Die Orchidee 48(1):4-8.

Jenny, R. 1998. Stanhopea warszewicziana Klotzsch 1852. Die Orchidee 49(4): Orchideenkartei Seite 883-884.

Jenny, R. and G. J. Braem 1993. A new Stanhopea from Columbia[sic]. Schlechteriana 4(3):125-127.

Rosillo, S. V. 1984. Stanhopea novogaliciana Rosillo, una nueva especie del occidente de Mexico. Orquidea(Mex.) 9(2):251-256.

Stern, W. L., K. J. Curry and A. M. Pridgeon 1987. Osmophores of Stanhopea (Orchidaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 74(9):1323-1331.